How to format your references using the The American Journal of Sports Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Sports Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mel BW. Neurobiology. What the synapse tells the neuron. Science. 2002;295(5561):1845-1846.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bjørnerud MG, Austrheim H. Geophysics: hot fluids or rock in eclogite metamorphism? Nature. 2006;440(7082):E4; discussion E4-5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kwak K, Cho K, Kim S. Stable bending performance of flexible organic light-emitting diodes using IZO anodes. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2787.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lénárt P, Bacher CP, Daigle N, et al. A contractile nuclear actin network drives chromosome congression in oocytes. Nature. 2005;436(7052):812-818.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schütz H, Wiedemann PM, Hennings W, Mertens J, Clauberg M. Comparative Risk Assessment. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2006.
An edited book
Rosales-Mendoza S, ed. Genetically Engineered Plants as a Source of Vaccines Against Wide Spread Diseases: An Integrated View. Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
White MS, Xenopoulos MA, Hogsden K, Metcalfe RA, Dillon PJ. Natural lake level fluctuation and associated concordance with water quality and aquatic communities within small lakes of the laurentian great lakes region. In: Wantzen KM, Rothhaupt KO, Mörtl M, Cantonati M, -Tóth LG, Fischer P, eds. Ecological Effects of Water-Level Fluctuations in Lakes. Springer Netherlands; 2008:21-31.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Sports Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Eastern Quolls To Be Finally Reintroduced To Mainland Australia After 50 Years Of Extinction. IFLScience. Published May 17, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Status of FAA’s Implementation of the Display System Replacement Project. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Webster WP. The Influence of Philanthropy and Administrative Decision-Making Models on a Liberal Arts College’s Strategic Planning Process: A Case Study. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gelles D, Thomas L Jr, Sorkin AR, Kelly K. Rebellion by Business Leaders Spelled End of Trump Councils. New York Times. August 16, 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 3,4.
This sentence cites four references 3,5,7,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Sports Medicine
AbbreviationAm. J. Sports Med.
ISSN (print)0363-5465
ISSN (online)1552-3365
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles