How to format your references using the The American Journal of Sports Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Sports Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Graf H-F. Atmospheric science. The complex interaction of aerosols and clouds. Science. 2004;303(5662):1309-1311.
A journal article with 2 authors
Naya Y, Suzuki WA. Integrating what and when across the primate medial temporal lobe. Science. 2011;333(6043):773-776.
A journal article with 3 authors
King J-R, Bekinschtein T, Dehaene S. Comment on “Preserved feedforward but impaired top-down processes in the vegetative state.” Science. 2011;334(6060):1203; author reply 1203.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Piazzesi G, Reconditi M, Linari M, et al. Mechanism of force generation by myosin heads in skeletal muscle. Nature. 2002;415(6872):659-662.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Segal HP. Utopias. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
Cai Z, Eulenstein O, Janies D, Schwartz D, eds. Bioinformatics Research and Applications: 9th International Symposium, ISBRA 2013, Charlotte, NC, USA, May 20-22, 2013. Proceedings. Vol 7875. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Aurnhammer M, Hanappe P, Steels L. Augmenting Navigation for Collaborative Tagging with Emergent Semantics. In: Cruz I, Decker S, Allemang D, et al., eds. The Semantic Web - ISWC 2006: 5th International Semantic Web Conference, ISWC 2006, Athens, GA, USA, November 5-9, 2006. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006:58-71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Sports Medicine.

Blog post
Luntz S. Adventurous Beetles Confirm A New Form Of Evolution. IFLScience. Published January 30, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Internet Protocol Version 6: Federal Agencies Need to Plan for Transition and Manage Security Risks. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jurica ML. Napping in the workplace as an invisible stigma: The moderating roles of raters’ nap habit, work ethic, and organizational policy. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Dannenberg L. In the Air on the Day the World Changed. New York Times. September 11, 2007:C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,5,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Sports Medicine
AbbreviationAm. J. Sports Med.
ISSN (print)0363-5465
ISSN (online)1552-3365
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles