How to format your references using the The American Journal of Sports Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Sports Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Conard NJ. A female figurine from the basal Aurignacian of Hohle Fels Cave in southwestern Germany. Nature. 2009;459(7244):248-252.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Lollar BS, McCollom TM. Geochemistry: biosignatures and abiotic constraints on early life. Nature. 2006;444(7121):E18; discussion E18-9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Provencio I, Rollag MD, Castrucci AM. Photoreceptive net in the mammalian retina. This mesh of cells may explain how some blind mice can still tell day from night. Nature. 2002;415(6871):493.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Oh P, Li Y, Yu J, et al. Subtractive proteomic mapping of the endothelial surface in lung and solid tumours for tissue-specific therapy. Nature. 2004;429(6992):629-635.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Zhang W, Shmulevich I, Astola J. Microarray Quality Control. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1.
Lagerlund H, ed. Forming The Mind: Essays on the Internal Senses and the Mind/Body Problem from Avicenna to the Medical Enlightenment. Vol 5. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Verstraete J. Higher Reasoning with Level-2 Fuzzy Regions. In: Christiansen H, Tré GD, Yazici A, Zadrozny S, Andreasen T, Larsen HL, eds. Flexible Query Answering Systems: 9th International Conference, FQAS 2011, Ghent, Belgium, October 26-28, 2011 Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011:49-59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Sports Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Davis J. Chernobyl May Be Turned Into A Solar Farm. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/chernobyl-may-be-turned-into-a-solar-farm/. Published August 1, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Surface Transportation Security: TSA Has Taken Steps Designed to Develop Processes for Sharing and Analyzing Information and to Improve Rail Security Incident Reporting. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Salamah H. Potential barriers to seeking medical care: Does obesity and/or self-esteem result in decreased frequency of necessary medical office visits? 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Barron J. Trading a Pop Star Strut for a Runway Glide. New York Times. September 12, 2016:A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,4,7,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Sports Medicine
AbbreviationAm. J. Sports Med.
ISSN (print)0363-5465
ISSN (online)1552-3365
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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