How to format your references using the The American Journal of Sports Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Sports Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Murray TH. Genetics. Stirring the simmering “designer baby” pot. Science. 2014;343(6176):1208-1210.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Rubin AF, Green P. Comment on “The consensus coding sequences of human breast and colorectal cancers.” Science. 2007;317(5844):1500.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Zhang X, Zhu Y, Granick S. Hydrophobicity at a Janus interface. Science. 2002;295(5555):663-666.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Araujo PT, Frank O, Mafra DL, et al. Mass-related inversion symmetry breaking and phonon self-energy renormalization in isotopically labeled AB-stacked bilayer graphene. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2061.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Gywat O, Krenner HJ, Berezovsky J. Spins in Optically Active Quantum Dots. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2009.
An edited book
1.
Tribastone M, Gilmore S, eds. Computer Performance Engineering: 9th European Workshop, EPEW 2012, Munich, Germany, July 30, 2012, and 28th UK Workshop, UKPEW 2012, Edinburgh, UK, July 2, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Vol 7587. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
de Luca A, D’Alessandro F. Equivalenza di automi. In: D’Alessandro F, ed. Teoria Degli Automi Finiti. UNITEXT. Milano: Springer; 2013:179-200.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Sports Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Davis J. Zika Virus May Shrink Testicles And Cause Fertility Problems In Men. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Social Research and Development of Limited Use to National Policymakers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Song H-J. Strategic Constraints of Economic Interdependence: South Korea’s Changing Strategy in the Face of a Rising China. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kleinfield NR, Fitzsimmons EG. Friends and Work Colleagues Remembering Lives Lost in the Metro-North Crash. New York Times. February 5, 2015:A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 3,5,7,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Sports Medicine
AbbreviationAm. J. Sports Med.
ISSN (print)0363-5465
ISSN (online)1552-3365
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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