How to format your references using the The American Journal of Sports Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Sports Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Ferry DK. Applied physics. Ohm’s law in a quantum world. Science. 2012;335(6064):45-46.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Omenetto FG, Kaplan DL. New opportunities for an ancient material. Science. 2010;329(5991):528-531.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Plante OJ, Palmacci ER, Seeberger PH. Automated solid-phase synthesis of oligosaccharides. Science. 2001;291(5508):1523-1527.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Wang Q, Zhao J, Brady AE, et al. Spinophilin blocks arrestin actions in vitro and in vivo at G protein-coupled receptors. Science. 2004;304(5679):1940-1944.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
McDonnell G, Sheard D. A Practical Guide to Decontamination in Healthcare. Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1.
Prusinski B. Expert Oracle GoldenGate. (Phillips S, Chung R, eds.). Apress; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Gramchev T, Pilipović S, Rodino L. Global Regularity and Stability in S-Spaces for Classes of Degenerate Shubin Operators. In: Schulze B-W, Wong MW, eds. Pseudo-Differential Operators: Complex Analysis and Partial Differential Equations: International Workshop, York University, Canada, August 4–8, 2008. Birkhäuser; 2010:81-90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Sports Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Taub B. New Research Shows How Pleasure And Positivity Mobilize The Body’s Immune System. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Space Shuttle: NASA Faces Challenges in Its Attempt to Achieve Planned Flight Rates. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Fuentez OL. Proposition 21: Juveniles tried as adults. Published online 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Hubbard B. Saudi Arabia to Rescind Ban on Female Drivers. New York Times. September 26, 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,4,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Sports Medicine
AbbreviationAm. J. Sports Med.
ISSN (print)0363-5465
ISSN (online)1552-3365
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles