How to format your references using the The American Journal of Sports Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Sports Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Liu Z. Atmospheric science. Glacial cycles and Indian monsoon--a southern push. Science. 2011;333(6043):706-708.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Voit GM, Bryan GL. Regulation of the X-ray luminosity of clusters of galaxies by cooling and supernova feedback. Nature. 2001;414(6862):425-427.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Brown ET, Molnar P, Bourlès DL. Comment on “Slip-rate measurements on the Karakorum Fault may imply secular variations in fault motion.” Science. 2005;309(5739):1326; author reply 1326.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Reddy KC, Andersen EC, Kruglyak L, Kim DH. A polymorphism in npr-1 is a behavioral determinant of pathogen susceptibility in C. elegans. Science. 2009;323(5912):382-384.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Knight HJ. Patent Strategy. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1.
Dahl V, Niemelä I, eds. Logic Programming: 23rd International Conference, ICLP 2007, Porto, Portugal, September 8-13, 2007. Proceedings. Vol 4670. Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Ugurlu T, Zeitler A, Kheyrollahi A. Sample Application: Application Structure and Domain Model. In: Zeitler A, Kheyrollahi A, eds. Pro ASP.NET Web API: HTTP Web Services in ASP.NET. Apress; 2013:95-139.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Sports Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Hubble Takes Spectacular Photograph Of Nebula And Star Together. IFLScience. Published August 24, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018. https://www.iflscience.com/space/hubble-photographs-glamorous-cosmic-couple/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Automatic Data Processing Activity in the Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Toothaker RD. A phenomenological study of millennial students and traditional pedagogies. Published online 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Rojas R. Woman Is Fatally Shot Outside a Club. New York Times. October 13, 2015:A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 4,5,7,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Sports Medicine
AbbreviationAm. J. Sports Med.
ISSN (print)0363-5465
ISSN (online)1552-3365
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles