How to format your references using the The American Journal of Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Psychiatry (AJP). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Urnov FD: Biological techniques: Edit the genome to understand it. Nature 2014; 513:40–41
A journal article with 2 authors
Ives AR, Cardinale BJ: Food-web interactions govern the resistance of communities after non-random extinctions. Nature 2004; 429:174–177
A journal article with 3 authors
Thompson JK, Rainville S, Pritchard DE: Cyclotron frequency shifts arising from polarization forces. Nature 2004; 430:58–61
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tomai T, Mitani S, Komatsu D, et al.: Metal-free aqueous redox capacitor via proton rocking-chair system in an organic-based couple. Sci Rep 2014; 4:3591

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nemethy L: Business Exit Planning. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011
An edited book
Fränti P, Brown G, Loog M, et al., editors: Structural, Syntactic, and Statistical Pattern Recognition: Joint IAPR International Workshop, S+SSPR 2014, Joensuu, Finland, August 20-22, 2014. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2014
A chapter in an edited book
Deutsch M: Undoing Nuclear Insanity: A Psychological Perspective, inDeutsch M, editorMorton Deutsch: Major Texts on Peace Psychology. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp 53–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Psychiatry.

Blog post
Davis J: Gut Bacteria Could Increase Risk Of Developing Asthma. IFLScience 2015; [cited 2018 Oct 30]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Airline Competition: Industry Competitive and Financial Issues. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Willis TY: Rare but there: An intersectional exploration of the experiences and outcomes of Black women who studied abroad through community college programs2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stelter B: Waking Up On The Wrong Side Of A Rating War. New York Times 2013; MM24

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Psychiatry
AbbreviationAm. J. Psychiatry
ISSN (print)0002-953X
ISSN (online)1535-7228
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

Other styles