How to format your references using the The American Journal of Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Psychiatry (AJP). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lohmueller KE: Evolution. On the origin of Peter Rabbit. Science 2014; 345:1000–1001
A journal article with 2 authors
Ghezzi I, Ruggles C: Chankillo: a 2300-year-old solar observatory in coastal Peru. Science 2007; 315:1239–1243
A journal article with 3 authors
Sharma BR, Manjanath A, Singh AK: Pentahexoctite: a new two-dimensional allotrope of carbon. Sci Rep 2014; 4:7164
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fairman ME, Maroney PA, Wang W, et al.: Protein displacement by DExH/D “RNA helicases” without duplex unwinding. Science 2004; 304:730–734

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Waigh TA: The Physics of Living Processes. Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2014
An edited book
Schmorrow DD, Fidopiastis CM, editors: Foundations of Augmented Cognition: Neuroergonomics and Operational Neuroscience: 10th International Conference, AC 2016, Held as Part of HCI International 2016, Toronto, ON, Canada, July 17-22, 2016, Proceedings, Part II. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2016
A chapter in an edited book
Melles GRJ: Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty, inReinhard T, Larkin DFP, editorsCornea and External Eye Disease. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2006, pp 65–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Psychiatry.

Blog post
Carpineti A: New Evidence Suggests The Amazon Had A Sea-Like Past [Internet]. IFLScience 2017; [cited 2018 Oct 30] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Aviation Security: TSA’s Staffing Allocation Model Is Useful for Allocating Staff among Airports, but Its Assumptions Should Be Systematically Reassessed. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2007

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Englebrecht KM: Healing the invisible wounds: A grant proposal for female veterans suffering from PTSD2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E: Groups Trace Soldiers’ Footsteps. New York Times 1994; 514

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 1).
This sentence cites four references (1, 1, 1, 1).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Psychiatry
AbbreviationAm. J. Psychiatry
ISSN (print)0002-953X
ISSN (online)1535-7228
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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