How to format your references using the The American Journal of Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Psychiatry (AJP). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chiang T: Catching crumbs from the table. In the face of metahuman science, humans have become metascientists. Nature 2000; 405:517
A journal article with 2 authors
Stein RS, Toda S: Geophysics. Megacity megaquakes--two near misses. Science 2013; 341:850–852
A journal article with 3 authors
Ginsburg GS, Angrist M, Cook-Deegan R: Public health. Genomics and medicine at a crossroads in Chernobyl. Science 2006; 314:62–63
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Frost DJ, Liebske C, Langenhorst F, et al.: Experimental evidence for the existence of iron-rich metal in the Earth’s lower mantle. Nature 2004; 428:409–412

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schwedt G: Experimente rund um die Kunststoffe des Alltags. Weinheim, Germany, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2013
An edited book
Randelli P, Dejour D, van Dijk CN, et al., editors: Arthroscopy: Basic to Advanced. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2016
A chapter in an edited book
Prasad SV, Meher KK: Anaerobic Digestion of Solid Waste: A Focus on Microbial Community Structures, inKarthikeyan OP, Heimann K, Muthu SS, editorsRecycling of Solid Waste for Biofuels and Bio-chemicals. Singapore, Springer, 2016, pp 127–163.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Psychiatry.

Blog post
Andrew E: How To Build The World’s Fastest Car [Internet]. IFLScience 2015; [cited 2018 Oct 30] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Food and Drug Administration: Effect of User Fees on Drug Approval Times, Withdrawals, and Other Agency Activities. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2002

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davidson AO: Observing action research processes in practice2009;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Markoff J: Study Finds Vulnerability in Wide Range of Devices. New York Times 2017; B2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Psychiatry
AbbreviationAm. J. Psychiatry
ISSN (print)0002-953X
ISSN (online)1535-7228
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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