How to format your references using the The American Journal of Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Psychiatry (AJP). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kampinga HH: Cell biology. A cell death avenue evolved from a life-saving path. Science 2014; 344:1341–1342
A journal article with 2 authors
Christensen CH, Nørskov JK: Chemistry. Green gold catalysis. Science 2010; 327:278–279
A journal article with 3 authors
Tomonaga M, Uwano Y, Saito T: How dolphins see the world: a comparison with chimpanzees and humans. Sci Rep 2014; 4:3717
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Herzog F, Primorac I, Dube P, et al.: Structure of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome interacting with a mitotic checkpoint complex. Science 2009; 323:1477–1481

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sharkh SM, Abusara MA, Orfanoudakis GI, et al.: Power Electronic Converters for Microgrids. Singapore, John Wiley & Sons, Singapore Pte. Ltd, 2014
An edited book
Liere R, Adriaansen T, Zudilova-Seinstra E, editors: Trends in Interactive Visualization: State-of-the-Art Survey. London, Springer, 2009
A chapter in an edited book
Upadhyay RC, Singh M: Production of Edible Mushrooms, inHofrichter M, editorIndustrial Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2011, pp 79–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Psychiatry.

Blog post
Andrew E: Meet Rhinorex: The Aptly-Named “King Nose” Hadrosaur [Internet]. IFLScience 2014; [cited 2018 Oct 30] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Transportation Infrastructure: Oversight of Rental Rates for Highway Construction Equipment Is Inadequate. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Swinford RR: Adapted dance - connecting mind, body and soul2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G: Jets May Change, But Ryan Says He Won’t. New York Times 2011; B11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Psychiatry
AbbreviationAm. J. Psychiatry
ISSN (print)0002-953X
ISSN (online)1535-7228
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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