How to format your references using the The American Journal of Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Psychiatry (AJP). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein M: Clinical trials: More trials, fewer tribulations. Nature 2014; 509:S55-7
A journal article with 2 authors
Montgomery DR, Manga M: Streamflow and water well responses to earthquakes. Science 2003; 300:2047–2049
A journal article with 3 authors
Richards-Dinger K, Stein RS, Toda S: Decay of aftershock density with distance does not indicate triggering by dynamic stress. Nature 2010; 467:583–586
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mitchell A, Romano GH, Groisman B, et al.: Adaptive prediction of environmental changes by microorganisms. Nature 2009; 460:220–224

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ibe OC: Fundamentals of Stochastic Networks. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011
An edited book
Vallecillo A, Tolvanen J-P, Kindler E, et al., editors: Modelling Foundations and Applications: 8th European Conference, ECMFA 2012, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark, July 2-5, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2012
A chapter in an edited book
Rzany B: Injection Technique, inMaio M de, Rzany B, editorsBotulinum Toxin in Aesthetic Medicine. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2007, pp 25–26.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Psychiatry.

Blog post
Andrew E: Do You Want Trees With That? How To Stop Consumer Products Destroying The Rainforests [Internet]. IFLScience 2015; [cited 2018 Oct 30] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Review of NASA’s Solicitation for the Leasing of Office Space in the Houston, Texas, Area. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bradford J: Commutative endomorphism rings of simple abelian varieties over finite fields2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pollak M: Glen Campbell Dies; Star Who Bridged Pop And Country Was 81. New York Times 2017; A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Psychiatry
AbbreviationAm. J. Psychiatry
ISSN (print)0002-953X
ISSN (online)1535-7228
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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