How to format your references using the The American Journal of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gross DJ. The frontier physicist. Nature. 2010 Oct 14;467(7317):S8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shim M, Guyot-Sionnest P. n-type colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals. Nature. 2000 Oct 26;407(6807):981–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Piscitelli CL, Krishnamurthy H, Gouaux E. Neurotransmitter/sodium symporter orthologue LeuT has a single high-affinity substrate site. Nature. 2010 Dec 23;468(7327):1129–32.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Honjoh S, Yamamoto T, Uno M, Nishida E. Signalling through RHEB-1 mediates intermittent fasting-induced longevity in C. elegans. Nature. 2009 Feb 5;457(7230):726–30.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gray DRJM, Al-Ani DMZ. Temporomandibular Disorders. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2011.
An edited book
Balks MR. Celebrating Soil: Discovering Soils and Landscapes. Zabowski D, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XI, 243 p. 338 illus., 232 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Schmidt J-M, Medwed M. Countermeasures for Symmetric Key Ciphers. In: Joye M, Tunstall M, editors. Fault Analysis in Cryptography. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 73–87. (Information Security and Cryptography).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. What Is Going On In Your Brain When You Sleep? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Special Education: Improved Timeliness and Better Use of Enforcement Actions Could Strengthen Education’s Monitoring System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004 Sep. Report No.: GAO-04-879.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Guarin Y. A Postpartum Support Group for Women Experiencing Postpartum Depression: A Grant Proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lehman S. Open Records Close the Case. New York Times. 2017 Mar 9;A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Emergency Medicine
ISSN (print)0735-6757
ISSN (online)1532-8171

Other styles