How to format your references using the The American Journal of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gasser SM. Visualizing chromatin dynamics in interphase nuclei. Science. 2002 May 24;296(5572):1412–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mackelprang R, Rubin EM. Paleontology. New tricks with old bones. Science. 2008 Jul 11;321(5886):211–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dunningham J, Rau A, Burnett K. From pedigree cats to fluffy-bunnies. Science. 2005 Feb 11;307(5711):872–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Burnett DL, Langley DB, Schofield P, Hermes JR, Chan TD, Jackson J, et al. Germinal center antibody mutation trajectories are determined by rapid self/foreign discrimination. Science. 2018 Apr 13;360(6385):223–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aubry J-F, Brînzei N. Systems Dependability Assessment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
Yin H. Automatic Malware Analysis: An Emulator Based Approach. Song D, editor. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. IX, 73 p. 15 illus. (SpringerBriefs in Computer Science).
A chapter in an edited book
Lee CH, Cho YJ. Framework of a Collaboration-Based Engineering Service System for Mould Industry. In: Gervasi O, Gavrilova ML, editors. Computational Science and Its Applications – ICCSA 2007: International Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, August 26-29, 2007 Proceedings Part III. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 33–44. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Some Good News About Hiring Women In STEM Doesn’t Erase Sex Bias Issue. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Complete and Enforced Architecture Needed for FAA Systems Modernization. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Feb. Report No.: AIMD-97-30.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Swinford RR. Adapted dance - connecting mind, body and soul [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. E!, a Mainstay on the Red Carpet, Buys the People’s Choice Awards. New York Times. 2017 Apr 6;B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Emergency Medicine
ISSN (print)0735-6757
ISSN (online)1532-8171

Other styles