How to format your references using the The American Journal of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Steinhardt P. Big Bang blunder bursts the multiverse bubble. Nature. 2014 Jun 5;510(7503):9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lippman Z, Martienssen R. The role of RNA interference in heterochromatic silencing. Nature. 2004 Sep 16;431(7006):364–70.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nielsen LK, Bjørnholm T, Mouritsen OG. Fluctuations caught in the act. Nature. 2000 Mar 23;404(6776):352.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Robinson LF, Henderson GM, Hall L, Matthews I. Climatic control of riverine and seawater uranium-isotope ratios. Science. 2004 Aug 6;305(5685):851–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kaul S, Ali F, Janakiram S, Wattenström B. Business Models for Sustainable Telecoms Growth in Developing Economies. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Witzany G, editor. Biocommunication of Fungi. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012. XII, 344 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Sanz F, Montalvo G, López AL, Piñeiro C, Bigeriego M, Sanz MJ. Ammonia and methane emissions from a dairy farm in Segovia (Spain). In: Casasús I, Rogošiç J, Rosati A, Štokoviç I, Gabiña D, editors. Animal farming and environmental interactions in the Mediterranean region. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers; 2012. p. 57–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
Fang J. Male Spiders Who Bring “Nuptial Gifts” Are Cannibalized Less. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Army Airlift: Need To Use Air Lines of Communications for Essential Items. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Jul. Report No.: NSIAD-87-184.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tucker MS. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of in vitro selected artemisinin resistant Plasmodium falciparum [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J. Books by Clare Beams, Hans Herbert Grimm, April Ayers Lawson and Kelly Luce. New York Times. 2016 Nov 30;C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Emergency Medicine
ISSN (print)0735-6757
ISSN (online)1532-8171

Other styles