How to format your references using the The American Journal of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grayson M. Nutrigenomics. Nature. 2010 Dec 23;468(7327):S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yarger JL, Wolf GH. Chemistry. Polymorphism in liquids. Science. 2004 Oct 29;306(5697):820–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yu X, Jin L, Zhou ZH. 3.88 A structure of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus by cryo-electron microscopy. Nature. 2008 May 15;453(7193):415–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pushkarsky I, Liu Y, Lyb Y, Weaver W, Su T-W, Mudanyali O, et al. Automated single-cell motility analysis on a chip using lensfree microscopy. Sci Rep. 2014 Apr 17;4:4717.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shimizu H. Shimizu’s Dermatology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Kapoor M, Mahomed NN, editors. Osteoarthritis: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Available Treatments, Drug Safety, Regenerative and Precision Medicine. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. X, 278 p. 30 illus., 10 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Aitchison K. No Going Back: Remembering When British Archaeology Changed Forever. In: Jameson JH, Eogan J, editors. Training and Practice for Modern Day Archaeologists. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 53–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Humans Were Eating Snails 30,000 Years Ago [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Motor Vehicle Regulations: Regulatory Cost Estimates Could Be Improved. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Jul. Report No.: RCED-92-110.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
George KG. Revisiting “The Blue Line Blues”: Transit-Oriented Development in Inner-City Areas of Los Angeles County, 2000-2016 [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nechepurenko I. Kremlin Group Viewed As a Propaganda Mill. New York Times. 2017 Apr 20;A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Emergency Medicine
ISSN (print)0735-6757
ISSN (online)1532-8171

Other styles