How to format your references using the The American Journal of Emergency Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Burkard G. Physics. Splitting spin states on a chip. Science. 2010 Feb 5;327(5966):650–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zeller D, Booth S. Costs and benefits of regulating mercury. Science. 2005 Nov 4;310(5749):777–9; author reply 777-9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zeng Y, Ye Q, Shen W. Design principles for single standing nanowire solar cells: going beyond the planar efficiency limits. Sci Rep. 2014 May 9;4:4915.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Huberman AD, Wang G-Y, Liets LC, Collins OA, Chapman B, Chalupa LM. Eye-specific retinogeniculate segregation independent of normal neuronal activity. Science. 2003 May 9;300(5621):994–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Héno R, Chandelier L. 3D Modeling of Buildings. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Agutter PS. About Life: Concepts in Modern Biology. Wheatley DN, editor. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007. VIII, 244 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Conti N, Memoli V. A Specific Profile: The Internet Users. In: Memoli V, editor. Citizens, Europe and the Media: Have New Media made Citizens more Eurosceptical? Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 69–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The American Journal of Emergency Medicine.

Blog post
Davis J. Some Species May Be Able To Rapidly Adapt To Environmental Change By Altering Gene Expression. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Security Administration: Progress and Challenges Faced in Strengthening Three Key Security Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012 Mar. Report No.: GAO-12-541T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williams VD. Leadership behavior practice patterns’ relationship to employee work engagement in a nonprofit that supports the homeless [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly F. STATUE REDEDICATED. New York Times. 1984 Nov 18;11NJ23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleThe American Journal of Emergency Medicine
ISSN (print)0735-6757
ISSN (online)1532-8171

Other styles