How to format your references using the The AAPS Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The AAPS Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Frey PA. Enzymology. Coenzymes and radicals. Science. 2001;294:2489–90.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bengtson S, Rasmussen B. Paleontology. New and ancient trace makers. Science. 2009;323:346–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lovejoy CO, Heiple KG, Meindl RS. Palaeoanthropology: Did our ancestors knuckle-walk? Nature. 2001;410:325–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Aleman A, Rios M, Juarez M, Lee D, Chen A, Eivers E. Mad linker phosphorylations control the intensity and range of the BMP-activity gradient in developing Drosophila tissues. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6927.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Abdel-aleem S. The Design and Management of Medical Device clinical Trials. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Ting I-H, Wu H-J, editors. Web Mining Applications in E-commerce and E-services. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Krieger MP. On the Incompressibility of Monotone DNFs. In: Liśkiewicz M, Reischuk R, editors. Fundamentals of Computation Theory: 15th International Symposium, FCT 2005, Lübeck, Germany, August 17-20, 2005 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. p. 32–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The AAPS Journal.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Frozen Poop Pills Could Fight Deadly Infections [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Job Access and Reverse Commute: Program Status and Potential Effects of Proposed Legislative Changes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004 Aug. Report No.: GAO-04-934R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Howard R. Aging well adult day care center [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. McGEEHAN P, Santora M. Chaos and Terror for Commuters After Train ‘Flew Through the Air.’ New York Times. 2016 Sep 29;A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe AAPS Journal
AbbreviationAAPS J.
ISSN (online)1550-7416

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