How to format your references using the The AAPS Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The AAPS Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Mayo MJ. Video games: a route to large-scale STEM education? Science. 2009;323:79–82.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Holme P, Liljeros F. Birth and death of links control disease spreading in empirical contact networks. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4999.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. O’Rahilly S, Barroso I, Wareham NJ. Genetic factors in type 2 diabetes: the end of the beginning? Science. 2005;307:370–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Bag S, Trikalitis PN, Chupas PJ, Armatas GS, Kanatzidis MG. Porous semiconducting gels and aerogels from chalcogenide clusters. Science. 2007;317:490–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. da Silva LS, Simões R, Gervásio H. Design of Steel Structures. Berlin, Germany: Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG; 2012.
An edited book
1. Luo T. Trust-based Collective View Prediction. Chen S, Xu G, Zhou J, editors. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Nakahara H, Sasao T, Matsuura M. A Regular Expression Matching Circuit Based on a Decomposed Automaton. In: Koch A, Krishnamurthy R, McAllister J, Woods R, El-Ghazawi T, editors. Reconfigurable Computing: Architectures, Tools and Applications: 7th International Symposium, ARC 2011, Belfast, UK, March 23-25, 2011 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 16–28.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The AAPS Journal.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Men Walk On Ice As Clear As Glass [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/environment/men-walk-ice-clear-glass/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Space Shuttle: Upgrade Activities and Carryover Balances. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Oct. Report No.: T-NSIAD-98-21.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Tovar L. Perceived life satisfaction of previously undocumented Latino immigrants [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wagner J. Venezuelan Ballplayers Love Homeland, at a Safe Distance. New York Times. 2017 Mar 11;SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe AAPS Journal
AbbreviationAAPS J.
ISSN (online)1550-7416
Scope

Other styles