How to format your references using the The AAPS Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The AAPS Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Rausher MD. Co-evolution and plant resistance to natural enemies. Nature. 2001;411:857–64.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kane CL, Mele EJ. Physics. A new spin on the insulating state. Science. 2006;314:1692–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Leone A, Ferrari PF, Palagi E. Different yawns, different functions? Testing social hypotheses on spontaneous yawning in Theropithecus gelada. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4010.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Miller DL, Kubista KD, Rutter GM, Ruan M, de Heer WA, First PN, et al. Observing the quantization of zero mass carriers in graphene. Science. 2009;324:924–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Manasreh O. Introduction to Nanomaterials and Devices. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Olausson H, Wessberg J, Morrison I, McGlone F, editors. Affective Touch and the Neurophysiology of CT Afferents. New York, NY: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. van Osch M. Hybrid Input-Output Conformance and Test Generation. In: Havelund K, Núñez M, Roşu G, Wolff B, editors. Formal Approaches to Software Testing and Runtime Verification: First Combined International Workshops, FATES 2006 and RV 2006, Seattle, WA, USA, August 15-16, 2006, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 70–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The AAPS Journal.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Skin Imprints From One Of Europe’s Last Dinosaurs Discovered In Spain [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/skin-imprints-from-one-of-europes-last-dinosaurs-discovered-in-spain/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Freight Railroads: Updated Information on Rates and Other Industry Trends. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Aug. Report No.: GAO-07-291R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Huber JA. Building an army: A corollary study of group interaction and group productivity [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Goldstein J. The Pickpocket’s Tale. New York Times. 2014 Jul 18;MB1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe AAPS Journal
AbbreviationAAPS J.
ISSN (online)1550-7416
Scope

Other styles