How to format your references using the Tetrahedron citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tetrahedron. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
I.P. Herman, Following the law, Nature. 445 (2007) 228.
A journal article with 2 authors
N.A. Bishop, L. Guarente, Two neurons mediate diet-restriction-induced longevity in C. elegans, Nature. 447 (2007) 545–549.
A journal article with 3 authors
D.J. Levey, R.S. Duncan, C.F. Levins, Animal behaviour: use of dung as a tool by burrowing owls, Nature. 431 (2004) 39.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D.-H. Park, C.J. Han, Y.-G. Shul, J.-H. Choy, Avatar DNA nanohybrid system in chip-on-a-phone, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4879.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G.W. Pan, Wavelets in Electromagnetics and Device Modeling, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2003.
An edited book
W.-K. Ching, Markov Chains: Models, Algorithms and Applications, 2nd ed. 2013, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
M.O. Ensor, South Sudanese Diaspora Children: Contested Notions of Childhood, Uprootedness, and Belonging Among Young Refugees in the U.S, in: M.L. Seeberg, E.M. Goździak (Eds.), Contested Childhoods: Growing up in Migrancy: Migration, Governance, Identities, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 61–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tetrahedron.

Blog post
T. Hale, Omsin, The Coin-Chomping Turtle, Has Died Just Weeks After Surgery, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, DOD Still Needs To Clarify Policies for Performing Research and Development for Other Agencies, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Banuelos, Deficit irrigation of bermudagrass and seashore paspalum for golf course turf, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Poniewozik, Harshing the Mellow of Angsty Hipsters, New York Times. (2016) C9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTetrahedron
ISSN (print)0040-4020

Other styles