How to format your references using the TEST citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for TEST. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heaven MC (2013) Chemistry. Turn the molecule this way for a faster reaction. Science 342:46–47
A journal article with 2 authors
Zwierlein MW, Ketterle W (2006) Comment on “Pairing and phase separation in a polarized Fermi gas.” Science 314:54; author reply 54
A journal article with 3 authors
Luo ZX, Crompton AW, Sun AL (2001) A new mammaliaform from the early Jurassic and evolution of mammalian characteristics. Science 292:1535–1540
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Li N, Chen Y, Zhang Y-M, et al (2014) Polysaccharide-gold nanocluster supramolecular conjugates as a versatile platform for the targeted delivery of anticancer drugs. Sci Rep 4:4164

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maidl B, Herrenknecht M, Maidl U, Wehrmeyer G (2011) Maschineller Tunnelbau im Schildvortrieb. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Quirk TJ (2015) Excel 2013 for Biological and Life Sciences Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Babé A, Labbé D, Monot F, et al (2007) Biodegradability of Oxygenates by Microflora from MTBE-Contaminated Sites: New Molecular Tools. In: Barceló D (ed) Fuel Oxygenates. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 75–98

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for TEST.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) EdX To Offer Free Advanced Placement Courses For High Schoolers. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Aviation: FAA’s Use and Management of Communications Resources. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McDuffie CA (2017) Melodies of intervention: Music therapy for transitional-age youth: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2016) Puerto Rico Asks for Help, With Creditors in Pursuit. New York Times B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Heaven 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Zwierlein and Ketterle 2006; Heaven 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zwierlein and Ketterle 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleTEST
AbbreviationTest (Madr.)
ISSN (print)1133-0686
ISSN (online)1863-8260
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
Statistics and Probability

Other styles