How to format your references using the TEST citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for TEST. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Matsui W (2011) Perspective: A model disease. Nature 480:S58
A journal article with 2 authors
Bintanja R, van der Linden EC (2013) The changing seasonal climate in the Arctic. Sci Rep 3:1556
A journal article with 3 authors
Pawloski JR, Hess DT, Stamler JS (2001) Export by red blood cells of nitric oxide bioactivity. Nature 409:622–626
A journal article with 5 or more authors
McClintock WE, Bradley ET, Vervack RJ Jr, et al (2008) Mercury’s exosphere: observations during MESSENGER’s First Mercury flyby. Science 321:92–94

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chu PP (2008) FPGA Prototyping by Verilog Examples. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Kim J-H, Ge SS, Vadakkepat P, et al (eds) (2009) Progress in Robotics: FIRA RoboWorld Congress 2009, Incheon, Korea, August 16-20, 2009. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Michl S (2015) Inventing Traditions, Raising Expectations. Recent Debates on “Personalized Medicine.” In: Fischer T, Langanke M, Marschall P, Michl S (eds) Individualized Medicine: Ethical, Economical and Historical Perspectives. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 45–60

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for TEST.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2015) Luke And Leia Might Be Twins - But Thanks To Space Travel, They Wouldn’t Be The Same Age. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) Survey of NASA’s Lessons Learned Process. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watson DJ (2010) How the Lead Systems Integrator Experience Should Enhance Efforts to Rebuild the Defense Acquisition Workforce. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis J (2016) ‘You Need to Change’: A Grandmother’s Words Help Turn a Life Around. New York Times A21

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Matsui 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Matsui 2011; Bintanja and van der Linden 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bintanja and van der Linden 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (McClintock et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleTEST
AbbreviationTest (Madr.)
ISSN (print)1133-0686
ISSN (online)1863-8260
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
Statistics and Probability

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