How to format your references using the TEST citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for TEST. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Poggio T (2013) Donald Arthur Glaser (1926-2013). Nature 496:32
A journal article with 2 authors
Ellis J, Mavromatos NE (2011) Does gravity correct gauge couplings? Nature 479:E5-6; discussion E6
A journal article with 3 authors
Riolo RL, Cohen MD, Axelrod R (2001) Evolution of cooperation without reciprocity. Nature 414:441–443
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Beaumont HJE, Gallie J, Kost C, et al (2009) Experimental evolution of bet hedging. Nature 462:90–93

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carroll JM, Bowyer-Crane C, Duff FJ, et al (2011) Developing Language and Literacy. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Eliades T, Eliades G (eds) (2014) Plastics in Dentistry and Estrogenicity: A Guide to Safe Practice. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Chimphango SBM, Belane A, Naab JB, et al (2008) Multi-Factor Approach to Identifying Cowpea Genotypes with Superior Symbiotic Traits and Higher Yield for Africa. In: Dakora FD, Chimphango SBM, Valentine AJ, et al. (eds) Biological Nitrogen Fixation: Towards Poverty Alleviation through Sustainable Agriculture: Proceedings of the 15th International Nitrogen Fixation Congress and the 12th International Conference of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 23–24

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for TEST.

Blog post
Hale T (2015) Alcohol And Love Have Very Similar Effects On The Brain. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003) Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Highway Trust Fund Excise Taxes. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hart MM (2013) R&D Characteristics and Organizational Structure: Case Studies of University-Industry Research Centers. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson K (2015) From Iraq to Oregon, a Global Lotto Jackpot. New York Times A15

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Poggio 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Ellis and Mavromatos 2011; Poggio 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ellis and Mavromatos 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Beaumont et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleTEST
AbbreviationTest (Madr.)
ISSN (print)1133-0686
ISSN (online)1863-8260
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
Statistics and Probability

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