How to format your references using the TEST citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for TEST. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Andreae MO (2007) Atmosphere. Aerosols before pollution. Science 315:50–51
A journal article with 2 authors
Lord KM, Turekian VC (2007) Science and society. Time for a new era of science diplomacy. Science 315:769–770
A journal article with 3 authors
McDermott F, Mattey DP, Hawkesworth C (2001) Centennial-scale Holocene climate variability revealed by a high-resolution speleothem delta 18O record from SW Ireland. Science 294:1328–1331
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Young BP, Shin JJH, Orij R, et al (2010) Phosphatidic acid is a pH biosensor that links membrane biogenesis to metabolism. Science 329:1085–1088

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Knudsen S (2005) A Biologist’s Guide to Analysis of DNA Microarray Data. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Kupiszewski M (ed) (2013) International Migration and the Future of Populations and Labour in Europe. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Boncolan-Walsh VP, Duan J, Gao H, et al (2005) Enstrophy and Ergodicity Of Gravity Currents. In: Waymire EC, Duan J (eds) Probability and Partial Differential Equations in Modern Applied Mathematics. Springer, New York, NY, pp 61–77

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for TEST.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Century-Old Mystery of Epic Eel Migration Solved. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996) Hispanic Employment Statistics. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huber JA (2012) Building an army: A corollary study of group interaction and group productivity. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2006) Justices Uphold State Rules In Decision on Dam Licenses. New York Times A18

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Andreae 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Andreae 2007; Lord and Turekian 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lord and Turekian 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Young et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleTEST
AbbreviationTest (Madr.)
ISSN (print)1133-0686
ISSN (online)1863-8260
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
Statistics and Probability

Other styles