How to format your references using the TEST citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for TEST. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nicholson E (2015) Accounting for career breaks. Science 348:830
A journal article with 2 authors
Kaiser D, Moreno J (2012) Dual-use research: Self-censorship is not enough. Nature 492:345–347
A journal article with 3 authors
Seidenberg MS, MacDonald MC, Saffran JR (2002) Neuroscience. Does grammar start where statistics stop? Science 298:553–554
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Hof B, van Doorne CWH, Westerweel J, et al (2004) Experimental observation of nonlinear traveling waves in turbulent pipe flow. Science 305:1594–1598

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nathanail CP, Bardos RP (2005) Reclamation of Contaminated Land. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Kaskutas LA, Galanter M (eds) (2008) Recent Developments in Alcoholism: Research on Alcoholics Anonymous and Spirituality in Addiction Recovery. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Chiesa A, Fossati F, Gambacciani G, Pensavalle E (2015) Enabling Technologies for Active Space Debris Removal: The Cadet Project. In: Sgobba T, Rongier I (eds) Space Safety is No Accident: The 7th IAASS Conference. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 29–38

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for TEST.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Spectacular New Image Of The Magellanic Clouds Released. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009) School Facilities: Physical Conditions in School Districts Receiving Impact Aid for Students Residing on Indian Lands. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Foster HC (2017) The effect of droplet size and sprayer type on physical drift. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Craig S, Pilon M (2013) Linked to Competitors, Judge Asserts Integrity. New York Times D1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nicholson 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Kaiser and Moreno 2012; Nicholson 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kaiser and Moreno 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Hof et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleTEST
AbbreviationTest (Madr.)
ISSN (print)1133-0686
ISSN (online)1863-8260
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
Statistics and Probability

Other styles