How to format your references using the TEST citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for TEST. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Balibar S (2010) The enigma of supersolidity. Nature 464:176–182
A journal article with 2 authors
Steiner G, Salvini-Plawen L (2001) Acaenoplax--polychaete or mollusc? Nature 414:601–2; discussion 602
A journal article with 3 authors
Mellman I, Coukos G, Dranoff G (2011) Cancer immunotherapy comes of age. Nature 480:480–489
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Garman SC, Wurzburg BA, Tarchevskaya SS, et al (2000) Structure of the Fc fragment of human IgE bound to its high-affinity receptor Fc epsilonRI alpha. Nature 406:259–266

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Potter L (2012) The Life of William Shakespeare. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Sovacool BK (2016) The Political Economy of Climate Change Adaptation. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London
A chapter in an edited book
Krüger R, Stumpf A (2013) Understanding Growth Barriers. In: Stumpf A (ed) Brand Growth Barriers: Identify, Understand, and Overcome Them. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 51–74

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for TEST.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015) Nest Architecture Determines Ants’ Capacity To Forage Collectively. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1982) Aviation Safety Hazards. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chung J (2009) Understanding caregiving for older adults with dementia in Korean American families. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Silver N (2012) Let’s Play Medalball! New York Times MM40

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Balibar 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Steiner and Salvini-Plawen 2001; Balibar 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Steiner and Salvini-Plawen 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Garman et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleTEST
AbbreviationTest (Madr.)
ISSN (print)1133-0686
ISSN (online)1863-8260
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
Statistics and Probability

Other styles