How to format your references using the TEST citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for TEST. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Segalman RA (2008) Materials science. Directing self-assembly toward perfection. Science 321:919–920
A journal article with 2 authors
Gheiratmand M, Mullen KT (2014) Orientation tuning in human colour vision at detection threshold. Sci Rep 4:4285
A journal article with 3 authors
Wyckoff GJ, Wang W, Wu CI (2000) Rapid evolution of male reproductive genes in the descent of man. Nature 403:304–309
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Lloyd-Smith JO, Schreiber SJ, Kopp PE, Getz WM (2005) Superspreading and the effect of individual variation on disease emergence. Nature 438:355–359

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coles A, Hawkins DG (2011) MIDAS Technical Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Burmester M, Tsudik G, Magliveras S, Ilić I (eds) (2011) Information Security: 13th International Conference, ISC 2010, Boca Raton, FL, USA, October 25-28, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Tazreiter C, Weber L, Pickering S, et al (2016) Indonesian Temporary Migrants: Australia as First Preference or Last Resort? In: Weber L, Pickering S, Segrave M, McKernan H (eds) Fluid Security in the Asia Pacific: Transnational Lives, Human Rights and State Control. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp 53–75

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for TEST.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Your Brain Is “Hard-Wired” To React Without Thinking. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) Bilingual Education: Research and Evaluation Contracts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roberts EM (2006) Whose Books Get Published?: Individual Agency and the Business of Children’s Publishing. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon J (2017) With the Security Team At a Las Vegas Casino. New York Times A21

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Segalman 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Segalman 2008; Gheiratmand and Mullen 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gheiratmand and Mullen 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Lloyd-Smith et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleTEST
AbbreviationTest (Madr.)
ISSN (print)1133-0686
ISSN (online)1863-8260
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
Statistics and Probability

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