How to format your references using the Technometrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technometrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ledford, H. (2009), “Ahead of the pack,” Nature, 459, 286–287.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kagaya, K., and Takahata, M. (2011), “Sequential synaptic excitation and inhibition shape readiness discharge for voluntary behavior,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 332, 365–368.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hunt, G. R., Corballis, M. C., and Gray, R. D. (2001), “Animal behaviour: Laterality in tool manufacture by crows,” Nature, 414, 707.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bomati, E. K., Haley, J. E., Noel, J. P., and Deheyn, D. D. (2014), “Spectral and structural comparison between bright and dim green fluorescent proteins in Amphioxus,” Scientific reports, 4, 5469.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Botto, F. (2003), Dictionary of e-Business, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Zieliński, M., and Rami-Porta, R. (eds.) (2014), The Transcervical Approach in Thoracic Surgery, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Doelitzscher, F., Reich, C., Knahl, M., and Clarke, N. (2013), “Understanding Cloud Audits,” in Privacy and Security for Cloud Computing, Computer Communications and Networks, eds. S. Pearson and G. Yee, London: Springer, pp. 125–163.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technometrics.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2016), “How Extreme Birds Stay Aloft For Months At A Time,” IFLScience, IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1983), Information Regarding the Effect of Applying the Representative Tax System to the General Revenue Sharing, Medicaid, and Vocational Education Programs, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Howard, A. G. (2009), “Large margin transformation learning,” Doctoral dissertation, New York, NY: Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, G. (2016), “In Every Breath, a Cancer Risk?,” New York Times, D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ledford 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Kagaya and Takahata 2011; Ledford 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kagaya and Takahata 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Bomati et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnometrics
ISSN (print)0040-1706
ISSN (online)1537-2723
ScopeApplied Mathematics
Modelling and Simulation
Statistics and Probability

Other styles