How to format your references using the Technology, Pedagogy and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology, Pedagogy and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Parker, D. E. (2004). Climate: large-scale warming is not urban. Nature, 432(7015), 290.
A journal article with 2 authors
Koester, H. J., & Johnston, D. (2005). Target cell-dependent normalization of transmitter release at neocortical synapses. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5723), 863–866.
A journal article with 3 authors
Raymond, S. N., Mandell, A. M., & Sigurdsson, S. (2006). Exotic Earths: forming habitable worlds with giant planet migration. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5792), 1413–1416.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Diebel, C. E., Proksch, R., Green, C. R., Neilson, P., & Walker, M. M. (2000). Magnetite defines a vertebrate magnetoreceptor. Nature, 406(6793), 299–302.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Twomey, B. (2011). Inside the Currency Market. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Arena, P. (Ed.). (2008). Dynamical Systems, Wave-Based Computation and Neuro-Inspired Robots (Vol. 500). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pulina, L., & Tacchella, A. (2009). Hard QBF Encodings Made Easy: Dream or Reality? In R. Serra & R. Cucchiara (Eds.), AI*IA 2009: Emergent Perspectives in Artificial Intelligence: XIth International Conference of the Italian Association for Artificial Intelligence Reggio Emilia, Italy, December 9-12, 2009 Proceedings (pp. 31–41). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology, Pedagogy and Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, July 16). Brain Cell Transplantation Restores Learning And Memory In Mouse Models Of Alzheimer’s. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1968). Why Is GAO Necessary and What Does It Hope To Accomplish? (No. 094489). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Woodworth, J. W. (2017). Secure Semantic Search over Encrypted Big Data in the Cloud [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (1999, July 25). Focused on Steering A Dinghy to Sydney. New York Times, 812.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Parker, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Koester & Johnston, 2005; Parker, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Koester & Johnston, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Raymond et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Diebel et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology, Pedagogy and Education
AbbreviationTechnol. Pedagog. Educ.
ISSN (print)1475-939X
ISSN (online)1747-5139
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Information Systems

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