How to format your references using the Technology, Pedagogy and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology, Pedagogy and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2004). Bricks & mortar. Nature, 430(6997), 384.
A journal article with 2 authors
Toader, O., & John, S. (2001). Proposed square spiral microfabrication architecture for large three-dimensional photonic band gap crystals. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5519), 1133–1135.
A journal article with 3 authors
Helbing, D., Farkas, I., & Vicsek, T. (2000). Simulating dynamical features of escape panic. Nature, 407(6803), 487–490.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Loose, C., Jensen, K., Rigoutsos, I., & Stephanopoulos, G. (2006). A linguistic model for the rational design of antimicrobial peptides. Nature, 443(7113), 867–869.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mory, M. (2013). Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bondeson, A. (2005). Computational Electromagnetics (T. Rylander & P. Ingelström, Eds.; Vol. 51). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Polcawich, R. G., & Pulskamp, J. S. (2011). Additive Processes for Piezoelectric Materials: Piezoelectric MEMS. In R. Ghodssi & P. Lin (Eds.), MEMS Materials and Processes Handbook (pp. 273–353). Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology, Pedagogy and Education.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, April 14). The Visual Centers in the Brains of Blind Crustaceans are Shrinking. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Aviation Security: Implementation of Recommendations Is Under Way, but Completion Will Take Several Years (RCED-98-102). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garatli, A. A. (2014). What are the necessary skills for leading an online business in Saudi Arabia? [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, P., & Fisher, I. (2017, May 22). Trump Stresses Palestinian Deal. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2004; Toader & John, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Toader & John, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Helbing et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Loose et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology, Pedagogy and Education
AbbreviationTechnol. Pedagog. Educ.
ISSN (print)1475-939X
ISSN (online)1747-5139
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Information Systems

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