How to format your references using the Technology, Pedagogy and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology, Pedagogy and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mann, A. (2011). Cosmology: The hunting of the dark. Nature, 471(7339), 433–435.
A journal article with 2 authors
Siaj, M., & McBreen, P. H. (2005). Creating, varying, and growing single-site molecular contacts. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5734), 588–590.
A journal article with 3 authors
Friedmann, T., Rabin, O., & Frankel, M. S. (2010). Ethics. Gene doping and sport. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5966), 647–648.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Schultz, T., Samoylova, E., Radloff, W., Hertel, I. V., Sobolewski, A. L., & Domcke, W. (2004). Efficient deactivation of a model base pair via excited-state hydrogen transfer. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5702), 1765–1768.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Miller, R. E. (1999). Optimization. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Eemeren, F. van. (2009). Fallacies and Judgments of Reasonableness: Empirical Research Concerning the Pragma-Dialectical Discussion Rules (B. Garssen & B. Meuffels, Eds.; Vol. 16). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Gurin, V. S. (2005). Small Metal Clusters: AB Initio Calculated Bare Clusters and Models Within Fullerene Cages. In E. Buzaneva & P. Scharff (Eds.), Frontiers of Multifunctional Integrated Nanosystems (pp. 31–38). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology, Pedagogy and Education.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, September 28). Milky Way Arm Containing Our Solar System May Be Bigger Than We Thought. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1974). New Navajo Construction Activities on the Navajo and Hopi Joint-Use Area (B-114868). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chitrampalam, P. (2009). Biological control of lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia spp. using Coniothyrium minitans and elucidation of biochemical interactions during mycoparasitism [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vanderhart, D., Pérez-Peña, R., & Schmidt, M. S. (2015, October 3). In Note Left Behind, Gunman ‘Did Not Like His Lot in Life,’ Officials Say. New York Times, A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mann, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Mann, 2011; Siaj & McBreen, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Siaj & McBreen, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Friedmann et al., 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Schultz et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology, Pedagogy and Education
AbbreviationTechnol. Pedagog. Educ.
ISSN (print)1475-939X
ISSN (online)1747-5139
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Information Systems

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