How to format your references using the Technology, Pedagogy and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology, Pedagogy and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boughman, J. (2007). Great expectations. Nature, 447(7145), 752.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nitzan, A., & Ratner, M. A. (2003). Electron transport in molecular wire junctions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5624), 1384–1389.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cramer, P., Bushnell, D. A., & Kornberg, R. D. (2001). Structural basis of transcription: RNA polymerase II at 2.8 angstrom resolution. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5523), 1863–1876.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tombler, T. W., Zhou, C., Alexseyev, L., Kong, J., Dai, H., Liu, L., … Wu, S. Y. (2000). Reversible electromechanical characteristics of carbon nanotubes under local-probe manipulation. Nature, 405(6788), 769–772.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hogan, K. (2008). The Secret Language of Business. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Yang, D., & Qian, Y. (Eds.). (2014). Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Advancement of Construction Management and Real Estate. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Abdullah, M. H., Saboor, A., Baig, I. A., & Arshad, M. (2016). Climate Change, Risk and Food Security: An Analysis of Wheat Crop in Pakistan. In S. Nautiyal, R. Schaldach, K. V. Raju, H. Kaechele, B. Pritchard, & K. S. Rao (Eds.), Climate Change Challenge (3C) and Social-Economic-Ecological Interface-Building: Exploring Potential Adaptation Strategies for Bio-resource Conservation and Livelihood Development (pp. 41–63). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology, Pedagogy and Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, May 9). New Neurons Erase Old Memories In Mice. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Highlights of an Expert Panel: The Benefits and Costs of Highway and Transit Investments (No. GAO-05-423SP). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ho, T. (2012). The influence of physical activity and unsafe neighborhoods on the development of gestational diabetes among women in California (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2005, December 1). Moscow: A Boom Town For Shiny New Theaters. New York Times, p. E3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Boughman, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Boughman, 2007; Nitzan & Ratner, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nitzan & Ratner, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Cramer, Bushnell, & Kornberg, 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Tombler et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology, Pedagogy and Education
AbbreviationTechnol. Pedagog. Educ.
ISSN (print)1475-939X
ISSN (online)1747-5139
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Information Systems

Other styles