How to format your references using the Technology, Pedagogy and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology, Pedagogy and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stafford, N. (2010). History: The changing notion of food. Nature, 468(7327), S16-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brambila, D. S., & Fratalocchi, A. (2013). Nonlinearly-enhanced energy transport in many dimensional quantum chaos. Scientific Reports, 3, 2359.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liljas, A., Ehrenberg, M., & Åqvist, J. (2011). Comment on “The mechanism for activation of GTP hydrolysis on the ribosome.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6038), 37; author reply 37.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lahdenperä, M., Lummaa, V., Helle, S., Tremblay, M., & Russell, A. F. (2004). Fitness benefits of prolonged post-reproductive lifespan in women. Nature, 428(6979), 178–181.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Snell, R. S., & Lemp, M. A. (1997). Clinical Anatomy of the Eye. Blackwell Science Ltd,.
An edited book
Kurian, M., & Ardakanian, R. (Eds.). (2015). Governing the Nexus: Water, Soil and Waste Resources Considering Global Change. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Hanyu, T. (2015). Challenge of Nonvolatile Logic LSI Using MTJ-Based Logic-in-Memory Architecture. In W. Zhao & G. Prenat (Eds.), Spintronics-based Computing (pp. 159–177). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology, Pedagogy and Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 29). There Are Now Just Four Northern White Rhinos Left On Earth. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Information Technology: An Audit Guide For Assessing Acquisition Risks (IMTEC-8.1.4). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lindsey, M. M. (2010). Sampling frequency for semi-arid streams and rivers: Implications for national parks in the Sonoran Desert Network [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B. (2016, October 9). After Simmering and Stewing, Brady Returns to Roast the Browns. New York Times, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stafford, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Brambila & Fratalocchi, 2013; Stafford, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brambila & Fratalocchi, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Liljas et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lahdenperä et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology, Pedagogy and Education
AbbreviationTechnol. Pedagog. Educ.
ISSN (print)1475-939X
ISSN (online)1747-5139
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Information Systems

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