How to format your references using the Technology, Pedagogy and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology, Pedagogy and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker, D. N. (2000). Keeping editors in line. Science (New York, N.Y.), 289(5479), 550b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Peter, I. S., & Davidson, E. H. (2011). A gene regulatory network controlling the embryonic specification of endoderm. Nature, 474(7353), 635–639.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lynch, V. J., May, G., & Wagner, G. P. (2011). Regulatory evolution through divergence of a phosphoswitch in the transcription factor CEBPB. Nature, 480(7377), 383–386.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Valentine, D. L., Kessler, J. D., Redmond, M. C., Mendes, S. D., Heintz, M. B., Farwell, C., Hu, L., Kinnaman, F. S., Yvon-Lewis, S., Du, M., Chan, E. W., Garcia Tigreros, F., & Villanueva, C. J. (2010). Propane respiration jump-starts microbial response to a deep oil spill. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6001), 208–211.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Raut, R., & Swamy, M. N. S. (2010). Modern Analog Filter Analysis and Design. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Nicolopoulou-Stamati, P., Hens, L., & Howard, C. V. (Eds.). (2005). Environmental Health Impacts of Transport and Mobility (Vol. 21). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Saska, M., Langr, J., & Přeučil, L. (2014). Plume Tracking by a Self-stabilized Group of Micro Aerial Vehicles. In J. Hodicky (Ed.), Modelling and Simulation for Autonomous Systems: First International Workshop, MESAS 2014, Rome, Italy, May 5-6, 2014, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 44–55). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology, Pedagogy and Education.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017, March 14). Third Law Of Thermodynamics Proven By Finding The Maximum Speed Of Cooling. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Aviation Competition: Proposed Domestic Airline Alliances Raise Serious Issues (T-RCED-98-215). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Altiparmak, F. (2008). Online Management and Mining of Heteregenous and Dynamic Time Series [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2009, July 5). An Homage to France. New York Times, NJ9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Baker, 2000; Peter & Davidson, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Peter & Davidson, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Lynch et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Valentine et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology, Pedagogy and Education
AbbreviationTechnol. Pedagog. Educ.
ISSN (print)1475-939X
ISSN (online)1747-5139
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Information Systems

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