How to format your references using the International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Singer PW. Military robotics and ethics: a world of killer apps. Nature. 2011;477(7365):399-401.
A journal article with 2 authors
Beasley AJ, Schreier EJ. Astronomy: The United States must rejoin the SKA. Nature. 2012;489(7416):363.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reece SE, Drew DR, Gardner A. Sex ratio adjustment and kin discrimination in malaria parasites. Nature. 2008;453(7195):609-614.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tomasello MV, Perra N, Tessone CJ, Karsai M, Schweitzer F. The role of endogenous and exogenous mechanisms in the formation of R&D networks. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5679.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cherian A. Energy and Global Climate Change. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Cardoso J, Guerra F, Houben GJ, Pinto AM, Velegrakis Y, eds. Semantic Keyword-Based Search on Structured Data Sources: First COST Action IC1302 International KEYSTONE Conference, IKC 2015, Coimbra, Portugal, September 8-9, 2015. Revised Selected Papers. Vol 9398. Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Guerraoui R, Raynal M. From Unreliable Objects to Reliable Objects: The Case of Atomic Registers and Consensus. In: Malyshkin V, ed. Parallel Computing Technologies: 9th International Conference, PaCT 2007, Pereslavl-Zalessky, Russia, September 3-7, 2007. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2007:47-61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences.

Blog post
Taub B. Sierra Leone Is Now Officially Free Of Ebola. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Passenger Screening: Transportation Security Administration Could Improve Complaint Processes. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gupta P. Enhanced Acquisition of Data in the Presence of Transfaulty Nodes in a Wireless Sensor Network. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vizard MM. In the Region /Westchester; Avalon Joins New Roc City for New Rochelle Revival. New York Times. October 31, 1999:1111.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences
AbbreviationInt. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. (1997)
ISSN (print)1365-1609
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

Other styles