How to format your references using the International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carbone A. Information measure for long-range correlated sequences: the case of the 24 human chromosomes. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2721.
A journal article with 2 authors
Futahashi R, Fujiwara H. Juvenile hormone regulates butterfly larval pattern switches. Science. 2008;319(5866):1061.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bakshy E, Messing S, Adamic LA. Political science. Exposure to ideologically diverse news and opinion on Facebook. Science. 2015;348(6239):1130-1132.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Cai H, Yu S, Menon S, et al. TRAPPI tethers COPII vesicles by binding the coat subunit Sec23. Nature. 2007;445(7130):941-944.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Merritt C. Process Steam Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Cudd AE, Lee WC, eds. Citizenship and Immigration - Borders, Migration and Political Membership in a Global Age. Vol 6. Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang Z, Sun K, Jajodia S, Jing J. Proof of Isolation for Cloud Storage. In: Jajodia S, Kant K, Samarati P, Singhal A, Swarup V, Wang C, eds. Secure Cloud Computing. Springer; 2014:95-121.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences.

Blog post
Carpineti A. The Second Generation Of Stars Keeps An Imprint Of Their Predecessors. IFLScience. Published December 7, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Human Resources and Payroll Systems Requirements. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson BD. Application of Systems Engineering Principles for Analysis of Utility Baseline Development Process. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J. Hell Gate Bridge, a Rail Span and a Fine Place to Hide From Zombies, Turns 100. New York Times. March 3, 2017:A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences
AbbreviationInt. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. (1997)
ISSN (print)1365-1609
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

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