How to format your references using the Technology and Economics of Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology and Economics of Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butterworth J (2012) Particle physics: Beyond the Higgs. Nature 488:581–582
A journal article with 2 authors
Bartek J, Hodny Z (2014) Ageing: Old blood stem cells feel the stress. Nature 512:140–141
A journal article with 3 authors
Church JA, White NJ, Arblaster JM (2005) Significant decadal-scale impact of volcanic eruptions on sea level and ocean heat content. Nature 438:74–77
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Cheng C, Amini A, Zhu C, et al (2014) Enhanced photocatalytic performance of TiO2-ZnO hybrid nanostructures. Sci Rep 4:4181

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Robinson N, Hall G, Fawcett W (2011) How to Survive in Anaesthesia. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Clark R, Livingstone DW, Smaller H (2012) Teacher Learning and Power in the Knowledge Society. SensePublishers, Rotterdam
A chapter in an edited book
Munier FL, Schorderet DF (2008) Classification of Corneal Dystrophies on a Molecular Genetic Basis. In: Reinhard T, Larkin F (eds) Cornea and External Eye Disease. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 83–100

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology and Economics of Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) World First: 3D Acoustic Cloaking Device. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Technology Transfer: Federal Efforts to Enhance the Competitiveness of Small Manufacturers. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Washington-Cobb SL (2012) Exploring the Experiences of Former Alternative Education Participants: Case Studies. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Isherwood C (2015) Sigh No More; Let’s Twist and Shout. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology and Economics of Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy
AbbreviationTechnol. Econ. Smart Grids Sustain. Energy
ISSN (online)2199-4706

Other styles