How to format your references using the Technology and Economics of Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology and Economics of Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Simmons JG (2010) Timeline: Lindau and the zeitgeist. Nature 467:S14-5
A journal article with 2 authors
Weaver AJ, Hillaire-Marcel C (2004) Ocean science. Global warming and the next ice age. Science 304:400–402
A journal article with 3 authors
Caldeira K, Jain AK, Hoffert MI (2003) Climate sensitivity uncertainty and the need for energy without CO2 emission. Science 299:2052–2054
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Uauy C, Distelfeld A, Fahima T, et al (2006) A NAC Gene regulating senescence improves grain protein, zinc, and iron content in wheat. Science 314:1298–1301

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chassaing R (2004) Digital Signal Processing and Applications with the C6713 and C6416 DSK. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Panigrahi BK, Das S, Suganthan PN, Dash SS (2010) Swarm, Evolutionary, and Memetic Computing: First International Conference on Swarm, Evolutionary, and Memetic Computing, SEMCCO 2010, Chennai, India, December 16-18, 2010. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang J, Bai R (2013) Research of FMCW for Perfect Binary Sequences Pairs. In: Jin D, Lin S (eds) Advances in Mechanical and Electronic Engineering: Volume 3. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 21–27

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology and Economics of Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) Record High To Record Low: What On Earth Is Happening To Antarctica’s Sea Ice? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Social Security Downsizing: Significant Savings but Some Service Quality and Operational Problems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tam R (2013) Adaptation of AspectJ for C sharp. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kovaleski SF (2013) Supervisors Of Gunman Were Told Of Issues. New York Times A10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology and Economics of Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy
AbbreviationTechnol. Econ. Smart Grids Sustain. Energy
ISSN (online)2199-4706

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