How to format your references using the Technology and Economics of Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology and Economics of Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carter EA (2008) Challenges in modeling materials properties without experimental input. Science 321:800–803
A journal article with 2 authors
Murphy KG, Bloom SR (2006) Gut hormones and the regulation of energy homeostasis. Nature 444:854–859
A journal article with 3 authors
Nobes C, Lloyd A, Marsh M (2015) RETROSPECTIVE. Alan Hall (1952-2015). Science 350:1039
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Maeda S, Nakagawa S, Suga M, et al (2009) Structure of the connexin 26 gap junction channel at 3.5 A resolution. Nature 458:597–602

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Duckert GH (2010) Practical Enterprise Risk Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Duffy VG (2015) Digital Human Modeling. Applications in Health, Safety, Ergonomics and Risk Management: Human Modeling: 6th International Conference, DHM 2015, Held as Part of HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015, Proceedings, Part I. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Moos M-K, Bennett AC (2011) Preconceptional Health Promotion. In: Handler A, Kennelly J, Peacock N (eds) Reducing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Reproductive and Perinatal Outcomes: The Evidence from Population-Based Interventions. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 65–92

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology and Economics of Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy.

Blog post
Andrew E (2016) How Events In Panama Created The Modern World (Millions Of Years Ago). In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Higher Education: Information Sharing Could Help Institutions Identify and Address Challenges Some Asian Americans and Pacific Islander Students Face. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rudoy SI (2014) Developing a model for understanding mindfulness as a potential intervention for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lehman S (2017) And Now for the Good News. New York Times A2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology and Economics of Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy
AbbreviationTechnol. Econ. Smart Grids Sustain. Energy
ISSN (online)2199-4706

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