How to format your references using the Technology and Economics of Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technology and Economics of Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boebinger GS (2009) Physics. An abnormal normal state. Science 323:590–591
A journal article with 2 authors
Bayes JJ, Malik HS (2009) Altered heterochromatin binding by a hybrid sterility protein in Drosophila sibling species. Science 326:1538–1541
A journal article with 3 authors
Levine ES, Blitz L, Heiles C (2006) The spiral structure of the outer Milky Way in hydrogen. Science 312:1773–1777
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zou Z, Ye J, Sayama K, Arakawa H (2001) Direct splitting of water under visible light irradiation with an oxide semiconductor photocatalyst. Nature 414:625–627

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Desmond KK (2011) Ideas about Art. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Beilina L (2015) Inverse Problems and Applications. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Lin P-CK, Khatri SP (2014) Predictor Ranking using Modified Zhegalkin Functions. In: Khatri SP (ed) Logic Synthesis for Genetic Diseases: Modeling Disease Behavior Using Boolean Networks. Springer, New York, NY, pp 53–74

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technology and Economics of Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Insect Diet May Have Led To Bigger Human Brains. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009) United States Merchant Marine Academy: Internal Control Weaknesses Resulted in Improper Sources and Uses of Funds; Some Corrective Actions Are Under Way. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoffmann M (2015) An exploratory study: Mobile device use for academics. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M (2017) Hurricane Closes Houston Arts Center. New York Times C3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnology and Economics of Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy
AbbreviationTechnol. Econ. Smart Grids Sustain. Energy
ISSN (online)2199-4706

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