How to format your references using the Technologies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technologies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Turney, C. This Was No Antarctic Pleasure Cruise. Nature 2014, 505, 133.
A journal article with 2 authors
Feizi, A.; Bordel, S. Metabolic and Protein Interaction Sub-Networks Controlling the Proliferation Rate of Cancer Cells and Their Impact on Patient Survival. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3041.
A journal article with 3 authors
Song, K.; Yeom, E.; Lee, S.J. Real-Time Imaging of Pulvinus Bending in Mimosa Pudica. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6466.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhu, Y.; Ghosh, P.; Charnay, P.; Burns, D.K.; Parada, L.F. Neurofibromas in NF1: Schwann Cell Origin and Role of Tumor Environment. Science 2002, 296, 920–922.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cooper, N.; Forrest, K.; Cramp, P. Essential Guide to Acute Care; Blackwell Publishing Ltd: Oxford, UK, 2008; ISBN 9780470757901.
An edited book
Applications of Cell Immobilisation Biotechnology; Nedović, V., Willaert, R., Eds.; Focus on Biotechnology; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2005; Vol. 8B; ISBN 9781402032295.
A chapter in an edited book
Rowland, J.H. Survivorship Research: Past, Present, and Future. In Cancer Survivorship: Today and Tomorrow; Ganz, P.A., Ed.; Springer: New York, NY, 2007; pp. 28–42 ISBN 9780387343495.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technologies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Mars: Contamination, Planetary Protection And The Search For Life (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Polar Weather Satellites: NOAA Is Working to Ensure Continuity but Needs to Quickly Address Information Security Weaknesses and Future Program Uncertainties; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2016;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gupta, P. Enhanced Acquisition of Data in the Presence of Transfaulty Nodes in a Wireless Sensor Network. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. No Headline. New York Times 1992, 126.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnologies
AbbreviationTechnologies (Basel)
ISSN (online)2227-7080

Other styles