How to format your references using the Technologies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technologies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Perros, M. Infectious disease. A sustainable model for antibiotics. Science 2015, 347, 1062–1064.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boyd, R.W.; Gauthier, D.J. Controlling the velocity of light pulses. Science 2009, 326, 1074–1077.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ohl, F.W.; Scheich, H.; Freeman, W.J. Change in pattern of ongoing cortical activity with auditory category learning. Nature 2001, 412, 733–736.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sudarsan, N.; Hammond, M.C.; Block, K.F.; Welz, R.; Barrick, J.E.; Roth, A.; Breaker, R.R. Tandem riboswitch architectures exhibit complex gene control functions. Science 2006, 314, 300–304.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Khoei, A.R. Extended Finite Element Method; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2014; ISBN 9781118869673.
An edited book
Dima, I.C. Modelling and Simulation in Management: Econometric Models Used in the Management of Organizations; Man, M., Ed.; Contributions to Management Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; ISBN 9783319165912.
A chapter in an edited book
Plichta, A.; Gaciarz, T.; Szomiński, S. Identification of Persons by Virtue of Hand Geometry. In Computer Information Systems and Industrial Management: 12th IFIP TC8 International Conference, CISIM 2013, Krakow, Poland, September 25-27, 2013. Proceedings; Saeed, K., Chaki, R., Cortesi, A., Wierzchoń, S., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 36–46 ISBN 9783642409240.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technologies.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. Cassini Just Snapped Some Amazing New Images Of Saturn’s Rings Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Telecommunications: Issues Related to the Structure and Funding of Public Television; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2007;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huger Marsh, D.P. Perspectives of disciplinary problems and practices in elementary schools. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University: Minneapolis, MN, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky, L. Style Provocateurs. New York Times 2012, ST3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnologies
AbbreviationTechnologies (Basel)
ISSN (online)2227-7080

Other styles