How to format your references using the Technologies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technologies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spielman, I.B. Physics. Assembling a Complex Quantum Ensemble. Science 2015, 348, 185–186.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gronewold, A.D.; Stow, C.A. Environment. Water Loss from the Great Lakes. Science 2014, 343, 1084–1085.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim, J.-E.; Chen, J.; Lou, Z. DBC1 Is a Negative Regulator of SIRT1. Nature 2008, 451, 583–586.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nielsen, S.B.; Thomsen, E.; Hansen, D.L.; Clausen, O.R. Plate-Wide Stress Relaxation Explains European Palaeocene Basin Inversions. Nature 2005, 435, 195–198.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dunlop, J.; Girma, D.; Irvine, J. Digital Mobile Communications and the Tetra System; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.: West Sussex, England, 2013; ISBN 9781118832585.
An edited book
Andrews, B. The Ricci Flow in Riemannian Geometry: A Complete Proof of the Differentiable 1/4-Pinching Sphere Theorem; Hopper, C., Ed.; Lecture Notes in Mathematics; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; Vol. 2011; ISBN 9783642162855.
A chapter in an edited book
Ogawa, T.; Kanosue, K. Training Locomotor Function: From a Perspective of the Underlying Neural Mechanisms. In Sports Performance; Kanosue, K., Nagami, T., Tsuchiya, J., Eds.; Springer Japan: Tokyo, 2015; pp. 49–58 ISBN 9784431553144.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technologies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Controversial Stem Cell Paper Set To Be Withdrawn From Nature Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Information Technology: Reform Initiatives Can Help Improve Efficiency and Effectiveness; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2014;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
O’Leary, J.J. Telling the Story: Teaching Leaders the Art of Storytelling and Its Impact on Individuals and the Organization. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University: Malibu, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B. Season Over, the Rangers Are Left to Consider What Might Have Been. New York Times 2017, B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnologies
AbbreviationTechnologies (Basel)
ISSN (online)2227-7080

Other styles