How to format your references using the Technologies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technologies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler, D. Report backs military axis on space. Nature 2003, 421, 301.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fratzl, P.; Barth, F.G. Biomaterial systems for mechanosensing and actuation. Nature 2009, 462, 442–448.
A journal article with 3 authors
Buxbaum, A.R.; Wu, B.; Singer, R.H. Single β-actin mRNA detection in neurons reveals a mechanism for regulating its translatability. Science 2014, 343, 419–422.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, Y.; Duan, C.; Peng, L.; Liao, J. Dimensionality-dependent charge transport in close-packed nanoparticle arrays: from 2D to 3D. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 7565.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lindl, T.; Steubing, R. Atlas of Living Cell Cultures; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2013; ISBN 9783527669929.
An edited book
Gupta, P. Fuzzy Portfolio Optimization: Advances in Hybrid Multi-criteria Methodologies; Mehlawat, M.K., Inuiguchi, M., Chandra, S., Eds.; Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014; Vol. 316; ISBN 9783642546518.
A chapter in an edited book
Schmidt, G.; Theiß, A.; Withopf, J.; Wolf, A. Evaluation of In-Car Communication Systems. In Digital Signal Processing for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety; Hansen, J.H.L., Boyraz, P., Takeda, K., Abut, H., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2012; pp. 73–107 ISBN 9781441996060.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technologies.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. First Results From NASA’s Twins Experiment Surprise Scientists Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Need for a National Earthquake Research Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1972;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tafoya, A. Impact of HIV/AIDS stigma on seropositive Latinos along the United States-Mexico border. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. Heart of the Matter. New York Times 2017, C7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnologies
AbbreviationTechnologies (Basel)
ISSN (online)2227-7080

Other styles