How to format your references using the Technologies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Technologies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Perrin, S. Preclinical Research: Make Mouse Studies Work. Nature 2014, 507, 423–425.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brown, G.D.; Gordon, S. Immune Recognition. A New Receptor for Beta-Glucans. Nature 2001, 413, 36–37.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sokolov, S.; Scheuer, T.; Catterall, W.A. Gating Pore Current in an Inherited Ion Channelopathy. Nature 2007, 446, 76–78.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Houston, F.; Goldmann, W.; Chong, A.; Jeffrey, M.; González, L.; Foster, J.; Parnham, D.; Hunter, N. Prion Diseases: BSE in Sheep Bred for Resistance to Infection. Nature 2003, 423, 498.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Takezawa, K. Guidebook to R Graphics Using Microsoft® Windows; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2012; ISBN 9781118270165.
An edited book
Salsa, S. A Primer on PDEs: Models, Methods, Simulations; Vegni, F.M.G., Zaretti, A., Zunino, P., Eds.; UNITEXT; Springer: Milano, 2013; ISBN 9788847028616.
A chapter in an edited book
Ribeiro-Rodrigues, R. Host Response to M. Leprae. In Leprosy: A Practical Guide; Nunzi, E., Massone, C., Eds.; Springer: Milano, 2012; pp. 27–38 ISBN 9788847023758.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Technologies.

Blog post
Andrews, R. This Simple Computer Game Seriously Boosts Children’s Math Skills (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office International Education Programs; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1978;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson, E. Predicting Home Purchase Location in DC: An Intersectional Approach. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D. IN SHORT: FICTION. New York Times 1995, 720.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTechnologies
AbbreviationTechnologies (Basel)
ISSN (online)2227-7080

Other styles