How to format your references using the Techniques in Regional Anesthesia and Pain Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Techniques in Regional Anesthesia and Pain Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pendry JB. Physics. Negative refraction for electrons? Science. 2007;315(5816):1226-1227.
A journal article with 2 authors
Silljé HHW, Nigg EA. Signal transduction. Capturing polo kinase. Science. 2003;299(5610):1190-1191.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aziz T, Stein J, Yogeshwar R. Animal testing: TV or not TV? Nature. 2011;470(7335):457-459.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Rozen S, Skaletsky H, Marszalek JD, et al. Abundant gene conversion between arms of palindromes in human and ape Y chromosomes. Nature. 2003;423(6942):873-876.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Noldus R. CAMEL. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Leal Filho W, Sümer V, eds. Sustainable Water Use and Management: Examples of New Approaches and Perspectives. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Lee C-C, Hervé JM. A Discontinuously Movable Constant Velocity Shaft Coupling of Koenigs Joint Type. In: Dai JS, Zoppi M, Kong X, eds. Advances in Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots I. London: Springer; 2012:35-43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Techniques in Regional Anesthesia and Pain Management.

Blog post
Andrew D. 10,000 Year-Old Monolith Discovered Under The Ocean. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Honeywell Computer Equipment Supplied to DOD. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gowetski DB. Manipulation of DNA topology using an artificial DNA-looping protein. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter J. U.S. Briefs E.U. on Fears Over Laptops on Flights. New York Times. May 18, 2017:A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleTechniques in Regional Anesthesia and Pain Management
AbbreviationTech. Reg. Anesth. Pain Manag.
ISSN (print)1084-208X
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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