How to format your references using the Techniques in Coloproctology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Techniques in Coloproctology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott A (2002) Rising star crashes back to Earth. Nature 419:420–421
A journal article with 2 authors
Cheng L, AghaKouchak A (2014) Nonstationary precipitation Intensity-Duration-Frequency curves for infrastructure design in a changing climate. Sci Rep 4:7093
A journal article with 3 authors
Rand DG, Greene JD, Nowak MA (2012) Spontaneous giving and calculated greed. Nature 489:427–430
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Renne PR, Feinberg JM, Waters MR, et al (2005) Geochronology: age of Mexican ash with alleged “footprints.” Nature 438:E7-8

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Keene J (2008) Clients with Complex Needs: Interprofessional Practice. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Davim JP (2013) Nontraditional Machining Processes: Research Advances. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Chiles C, Shroff G (2012) Malignant Pericardial Disease. In: Kiselevsky MV (ed) Malignant Effusions: Pleuritis, Ascites, Pericardites. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 77–97

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Techniques in Coloproctology.

Blog post
Luntz S (2016) Insects Have Been Carrying Camouflage Since The Dinosaurs. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Domestic Aviation: Barriers to Entry Continue to Limit Benefits of Airline Deregulation. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robles B (2009) Academic achievement among foster care children with a disability: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Robbins L (2013) Restaurants Were His Life. New York Times MB1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTechniques in Coloproctology
AbbreviationTech. Coloproctol.
ISSN (print)1123-6337
ISSN (online)1128-045X

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