How to format your references using the Techniques in Coloproctology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Techniques in Coloproctology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alter H (2011) Baruch Blumberg (1925-2011). Nature 473:155
A journal article with 2 authors
Taylor JRA, Kier WM (2003) Switching skeletons: hydrostatic support in molting crabs. Science 301:209–210
A journal article with 3 authors
Gur I, Sawyer K, Prasher R (2012) Engineering. Searching for a better thermal battery. Science 335:1454–1455
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wang Y, Chen M, Zhou F, Ma E (2002) High tensile ductility in a nanostructured metal. Nature 419:912–915

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown DJ (2005) Cinnolines and Phthalazines: Supplement II. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Larsson L, Stern F, Visonneau M (2014) Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics: An assessment of the Gothenburg 2010 Workshop. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Buchheim C, Ebner D, Jünger M, et al (2006) Exact Crossing Minimization. In: Healy P, Nikolov NS (eds) Graph Drawing: 13th International Symposium, GD 2005, Limerick, Ireland, September 12-14, 2005. Revised Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 37–48

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Techniques in Coloproctology.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) Preserving The Dead: Weird And Grisly Practices From Around The World. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013) Highway Trust Fund Obligations, Fiscal Years 2009 to 2011. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lord V (2015) Defining eating disorder recovery: A qualitative approach. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K (2012) Whipping Up a Brew That Is True to You. New York Times NJ10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTechniques in Coloproctology
AbbreviationTech. Coloproctol.
ISSN (print)1123-6337
ISSN (online)1128-045X

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