How to format your references using the Rorschachiana citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rorschachiana. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Watanabe, M. (2004). Networking, networking, networking, networking, networking. Nature, 430(7001), 812–813.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee, S.-J., & Masliah, E. (2015). Neurodegeneration: Aggregates feel the strain. Nature, 522(7556), 296–297.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, C., Shim, M., & Guyot-Sionnest, P. (2001). Electrochromic nanocrystal quantum dots. Science (New York, N.Y.), 291(5512), 2390–2392.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ghosh, M., Song, X., Mouneimne, G., Sidani, M., Lawrence, D. S., & Condeelis, J. S. (2004). Cofilin promotes actin polymerization and defines the direction of cell motility. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5671), 743–746.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aronson, D. R. (2006). Evidence-Based Technical Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Miyata, T., Eckardt, K.-U., & Nangaku, M. (Eds.). (2011). Studies on Renal Disorders. Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Herson, J., Buyse, M., & Wittes, J. T. (2012). On Stopping a Randomized Clinical Trial for Futility. In D. Harrington (Ed.), Designs for Clinical Trials: Perspectives on Current Issues (pp. 109–137). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rorschachiana.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, October 23). Earthquake Effects Spread Far And Wide. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). GAO Rolodex Cards (148869). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Karmacharya, B. (2015). Population Dynamics of Northern Cardinal and Carolina Wren in an Urban Forest Fragment: Safe Refuge or Ecological Trap? [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crawford, S. (2014, April 28). The Wire Next Time. New York Times, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Watanabe, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Lee & Masliah, 2015; Watanabe, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lee & Masliah, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Wang et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ghosh et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleRorschachiana
ISSN (print)1192-5604
ISSN (online)2151-206X
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology

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