How to format your references using the Rorschachiana citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rorschachiana. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lupascu, A. (2014). Quantum physics: The path most travelled. Nature, 511(7511), 538–539.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boroson, T. A., & Lauer, T. R. (2009). A candidate sub-parsec supermassive binary black hole system. Nature, 458(7234), 53–55.
A journal article with 3 authors
Loudet, J. C., Hanusse, P., & Poulin, P. (2004). Stokes drag on a sphere in a nematic liquid crystal. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5701), 1525.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Devries, G. A., Brunnbauer, M., Hu, Y., Jackson, A. M., Long, B., Neltner, B. T., … Stellacci, F. (2007). Divalent metal nanoparticles. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5810), 358–361.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moskowitz, H. R., Porretta, S., & Silcher, M. (2008). Concept Research in Food Product Design and Development. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing.
An edited book
Xie, J., Chen, Z., Douglas, C. C., Zhang, W., & Chen, Y. (Eds.). (2016). High Performance Computing and Applications: Third International Conference, HPCA 2015, Shanghai, China, July 26-30, 2015, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 9576). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Held, L., & Sabanés Bové, D. (2014). Frequentist Properties of the Likelihood. In D. Sabanés Bové (Ed.), Applied Statistical Inference: Likelihood and Bayes (pp. 79–122). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rorschachiana.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015, October 25). NASA’s Mars-Bound Space Launch System Rocket Passes Critical Design Review. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Small Business Research Programs: More Guidance and Oversight Needed to Comply with Spending and Reporting Requirements (No. GAO-14-431). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dobson, E. C. (2012). Elizabeth C. Dobson Consulting and Design: A business plan for aging-in-place resources (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2007, March 25). Brookhaven Lab Avoids Cuts in Budget. New York Times, p. LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lupascu, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Boroson & Lauer, 2009; Lupascu, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boroson & Lauer, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Loudet, Hanusse, & Poulin, 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Devries et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleRorschachiana
ISSN (print)1192-5604
ISSN (online)2151-206X
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology

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