How to format your references using the Acta Oecologica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Oecologica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cohen, M.D., 2008. Economics. Learning with regret. Science 319, 1052–1053.
A journal article with 2 authors
Murray, N., Holman, M., 2001. The role of chaotic resonances in the Solar System. Nature 410, 773–779.
A journal article with 3 authors
McAlary, L., Yerbury, J.J., Aquilina, J.A., 2013. Glutathionylation potentiates benign superoxide dismutase 1 variants to the toxic forms associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Sci. Rep. 3, 3275.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jung, H.Y., Chun, H., Park, S., Kang, S.-H., Ahn, C.W., Kwon, Y.-K., Upmanyu, M., Ajayan, P.M., Jung, Y.J., 2013. Liquid metal nanodroplet dynamics inside nanocontainers. Sci. Rep. 3, 2588.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chen, K., 2015. Performance Evaluation by Simulation and Analysis with Applications to Computer Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Kawecka-Jaszcz, K., Klocek, M., Tobiasz-Adamczyk, B., Bulpitt, C.J. (Eds.), 2013. Health-Related Quality of Life in Cardiovascular Patients. Springer, Milano.
A chapter in an edited book
Jauch, E.C., Holmstedt, C., 2015. Intravenous Thrombolytic Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke: Results of Large, Randomized Clinical Trials, in: Lyden, P.D. (Ed.), Thrombolytic Therapy for Acute Stroke. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 95–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Oecologica.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Little Hedgehog Who Lost His Spikes Being Kept Cozy Until They Grow Back [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. DOT Contract Oversight (No. RCED-93-67R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Doyle, J.J., 2012. Under the influence: High risk social networks and recidivism (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2010. At Stadium, But Far From Roar Of Crowd. New York Times B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cohen, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Cohen, 2008; Murray and Holman, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Murray and Holman, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Jung et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Oecologica
AbbreviationActa Oecol. (Montrouge)
ISSN (print)1146-609X
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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