How to format your references using the Acta Oecologica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Oecologica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Urry, M., 2015. Science and gender: Scientists must work harder on equality. Nature 528, 471–473.
A journal article with 2 authors
Raes, F., Swart, R., 2007. Climate change. Climate assessment: what’s next? Science 318, 1386.
A journal article with 3 authors
Duivenvoorden, J.F., Svenning, J.C., Wright, S.J., 2002. Ecology. Beta diversity in tropical forests. Science 295, 636–637.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Narita, Masako, Young, A.R.J., Arakawa, S., Samarajiwa, S.A., Nakashima, T., Yoshida, S., Hong, S., Berry, L.S., Reichelt, S., Ferreira, M., Tavaré, S., Inoki, K., Shimizu, S., Narita, Masashi, 2011. Spatial coupling of mTOR and autophagy augments secretory phenotypes. Science 332, 966–970.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Räisänen, V., 2006. Service Modelling. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Oswald, E., Fischlin, M. (Eds.), 2015. Advances in Cryptology - EUROCRYPT 2015: 34th Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, Sofia, Bulgaria, April 26-30, 2015, Proceedings, Part II, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Choi, B., Kim, J., Song, T.-H., 2014. Retracted: Influence of Scattering Pattern on the Insulation Performance of VIP Filler Materials, in: Li, A., Zhu, Y., Li, Y. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning: Volume 1: Indoor and Outdoor Environment, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 33–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Oecologica.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Having An Orgasm Is Like Going Into A Trance [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977. Private, Profitmaking Firms’ Reports on Research and Development Contracts with the Environmental Protection Agency Can Be Evaluated Better (No. PSAD-77-161). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bigelow, R.W., 2017. Perception of Online Legal Education among Recently Retired Law School Faculty (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmidt, M.S., Haberman, M., 2017. Sessions, Shamed by President Over Inquiry, Was Set to Resign. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Urry, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Raes and Swart, 2007; Urry, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Raes and Swart, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Narita et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Oecologica
AbbreviationActa Oecol. (Montrouge)
ISSN (print)1146-609X
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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