How to format your references using the Teaching Mathematics and its Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teaching Mathematics and its Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stajic, J. (2013) Quantum information processing. The future of quantum information processing. Introduction. Science, 339, 1163.
A journal article with 2 authors
Luo, C. & Ecker, J.R. (2015) Epigenetics. Exceptional epigenetics in the brain. Science, 348, 1094–1095.
A journal article with 3 authors
Taylor, P.D., Day, T., & Wild, G. (2007) Evolution of cooperation in a finite homogeneous graph. Nature, 447, 469–472.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pang, W.-W., Zhang, P., Zhang, G.-C., Xu, A.-G., & Zhao, X.-G. (2014) Nucleation and growth mechanisms of hcp domains in compressed iron. Sci. Rep., 4, 5273.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brenner, I.R. (2010) How to Survive a Medical Malpractice Lawsuit. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Camarinha-Matos, L.M., Paraskakis, I., & Afsarmanesh, H. (2009) Leveraging Knowledge for Innovation in Collaborative Networks: 10th IFIP WG 5.5 Working Conference on Virtual Enterprises, PRO-VE 2009, Thessaloniki, Greece, October 7-9, 2009. Proceedings, vol. 307. , IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Oemig, F. & Snelick, R. (2016) Conformance Constructs. Healthcare Interoperability Standards Compliance Handbook: Conformance and Testing of Healthcare Data Exchange Standards (Snelick, R. ed). Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 159–221.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teaching Mathematics and its Applications.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016) How Much Radiation Is Given Off By Your Household Items? IFLScience. URL


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1976) Rotation Policies and Practices Have Been Changed for the Better--But Room for Improvement Remains ( No. FPCD-76-45). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
ELBoushi, T.C. (2010) Evaluating ethics training and the outcome on leadership decision making: A phenomenological study (Doctoral dissertation).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2013) A Russian Museum Feud With Putin in the Middle. New York Times, C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stajic, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Stajic, 2013; Luo & Ecker, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Luo & Ecker, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Pang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeaching Mathematics and its Applications
ISSN (print)0268-3679
ISSN (online)1471-6976
ScopeGeneral Mathematics

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