How to format your references using the Teaching Mathematics and its Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teaching Mathematics and its Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baruch, J. (2014) Practical science has a global reach and appeal. Nature, 507, 141.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pruitt, J.N. & Goodnight, C.J. (2014) Site-specific group selection drives locally adapted group compositions. Nature, 514, 359–362.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nosil, P., Crespi, B.J., & Sandoval, C.P. (2002) Host-plant adaptation drives the parallel evolution of reproductive isolation. Nature, 417, 440–443.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S.A., Tovar-Sanchez, A., Fu, F.-X., Capone, D.G., Carpenter, E.J., & Hutchins, D.A. (2004) The impact of surface-adsorbed phosphorus on phytoplankton Redfield stoichiometry. Nature, 432, 897–901.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Geren, R.L. (2016) Applying the Building Code. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mandal, D.K. & Syan, C.S. (2016) CAD/CAM, Robotics and Factories of the Future: Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on CARs & FoF 2016. , Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering. New Delhi: Springer India.
A chapter in an edited book
Hommel, W. (2005) An Architecture for Privacy-Aware Inter-domain Identity Management. Ambient Networks: 16th IFIP/IEEE International Workshop on Distributed Systems: Operations and Management, DSOM 2005, Barcelona, Spain, October 24-26, 2005. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Schönwälder, J. & Serrat, J. eds). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 48–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teaching Mathematics and its Applications.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016) Nope, Your Intelligence Probably Isn’t Solely Inherited From Your Mother. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) District of Columbia Public Schools: Enrollment Count Still Appears Vulnerable to Errors ( No. T-HEHS-98-91). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morales, D. (2017) Understanding How Perceptions of School Leadership and School Community Relationships Affected Veteran Teachers’ Decisions to Remain Working in Urban Elementary Schools (Doctoral dissertation).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017) Toys, Manolos and Tennis Champs. New York Times, AR72.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baruch, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Baruch, 2014; Pruitt & Goodnight, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pruitt & Goodnight, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Sañudo-Wilhelmy et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeaching Mathematics and its Applications
ISSN (print)0268-3679
ISSN (online)1471-6976
ScopeGeneral Mathematics

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