How to format your references using the Teaching and Learning in Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teaching and Learning in Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
van de Walle, A. (2014). Melting Mechanisms. Simulations provide a rare look at real melting. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6210), 704–705.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sharon, I., & Banfield, J. F. (2013). Microbiology. Genomes from metagenomics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6162), 1057–1058.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ince, D. C., Hatton, L., & Graham-Cumming, J. (2012). The case for open computer programs. Nature, 482(7386), 485–488.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Canman, J. C., Lewellyn, L., Laband, K., Smerdon, S. J., Desai, A., Bowerman, B., & Oegema, K. (2008). Inhibition of Rac by the GAP activity of centralspindlin is essential for cytokinesis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5907), 1543–1546.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Narang, R. K. (2013). Inside the Black Box. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Arnon, A., Weinblatt, J., & Young, W. (Eds.). (2011). Perspectives on Keynesian Economics. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Fisher, D. C. (2009). Paleobiology and Extinction of Proboscideans in the Great Lakes Region of North America. In G. Haynes (Ed.), American Megafaunal Extinctions at the End of the Pleistocene (pp. 55–75). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teaching and Learning in Nursing.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, November 18). The Arctic Is Currently An Astonishing THIRTY SIX DEGREES Warmer Than It Should Be. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Weather Forecasting: NWS Has Not Demonstrated That New Processing System Will Improve Mission Effectiveness (AIMD-96-29). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Macy, P. (2017). Underachievement in Gifted Students: Understanding Perceptions of Educational Experiences, Attitudes Toward School, and Teacher Training [Doctoral dissertation]. Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L. F. (2005, October 9). Ready for Their Close-Up, a Couple Consults. New York Times, 14LI12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (van de Walle, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Sharon & Banfield, 2013; van de Walle, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sharon & Banfield, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Ince et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Canman et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeaching and Learning in Nursing
AbbreviationTeach. Learn. Nurs.
ISSN (print)1557-3087
ScopeFundamentals and skills
Leadership and Management
Research and Theory

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