How to format your references using the Teaching and Learning in Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teaching and Learning in Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holmes, J. A. (2008). Ecology. How the Sahara became dry. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5877), 752–753.
A journal article with 2 authors
Symington, L. S., & Holloman, W. K. (2004). Molecular biology. New Year’s resolution--resolving resolvases. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5655), 184–185.
A journal article with 3 authors
ffrench-Constant, C., Colognato, H., & Franklin, R. J. M. (2004). Neuroscience. The mysteries of myelin unwrapped. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5671), 688–689.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Efthimiopoulos, I., Zhang, J., Kucway, M., Park, C., Ewing, R. C., & Wang, Y. (2013). Sb₂Se₃ under pressure. Scientific Reports, 3, 2665.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nakhjiri, M., & Nakhjiri, M. (2006). AAA and Network Security for Mobile Access. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Cano, A. (2013). Complex Kleinian Groups (J. P. Navarrete & J. Seade, Eds.; Vol. 303). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Robinson, P. (2012). Individual Differences, Aptitude Complexes, SLA Processes, and Aptitude Test Development. In M. Pawlak (Ed.), New Perspectives on Individual Differences in Language Learning and Teaching (pp. 57–75). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teaching and Learning in Nursing.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, July 22). Jaguars May Have Evolved To Hunt Particularly Dangerous Prey. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Statutory Copyright Licenses: Stakeholders’ Views on a Phaseout of Licenses for Broadcast Programming (GAO-16-496). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zoino, J. J. (2017). Field Methods, Sampling Strategies, Historical Documents, and Data Redundancy: A Study of Historic Tenant Farmsteads in Leflore County, Mississippi [Doctoral dissertation]. Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Miller, S. K. (2013, November 1). Being ‘Partly Jewish.’ New York Times, A31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Holmes, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Holmes, 2008; Symington & Holloman, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Symington & Holloman, 2004)
  • Three authors: (ffrench-Constant et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Efthimiopoulos et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeaching and Learning in Nursing
AbbreviationTeach. Learn. Nurs.
ISSN (print)1557-3087
ScopeFundamentals and skills
Leadership and Management
Research and Theory

Other styles