How to format your references using the Teaching and Learning in Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teaching and Learning in Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chapman, T. (2004). Drug discovery: the leading edge. Nature, 430(6995), 109–115.
A journal article with 2 authors
Johansson, M. E. V., & Hansson, G. C. (2011). Microbiology. Keeping bacteria at a distance. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6053), 182–183.
A journal article with 3 authors
Agrawal, A. F., Brodie, E. D., 3rd, & Brown, J. (2001). Parent-offspring coadaptation and the dual genetic control of maternal care. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5522), 1710–1712.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Shirey, S. B., Harris, J. W., Richardson, S. H., Fouch, M. J., James, D. E., Cartigny, P., … Viljoen, F. (2002). Diamond genesis, seismic structure, and evolution of the Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe craton. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5587), 1683–1686.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McLeod, L. E. (2016). Leading with Noble Purpose. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Szymanski, B. K., & Yener, B. (Eds.). (2005). Advances in Pervasive Computing and Networking. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Shah, J. (2009). Herbal Treatments for Erectile Dysfunction. In K. G. Ramawat (Ed.), Herbal Drugs: Ethnomedicine to Modern Medicine (pp. 67–80). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teaching and Learning in Nursing.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017, May 11). Incredible New Image Of The Crab Nebula Created By 5 Telescopes Combined. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). ADP Budget: Potential Reductions to the Department of the Air Force’s Budget Request (No. IMTEC-90-57BR). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shackelford, V. (2014). Mary’s mandala story: Images of chaos in mandala psychology (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M. M. (2017, May 10). Firing Puts Public Split Over Media On Display. New York Times, p. A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chapman, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Chapman, 2004; Johansson & Hansson, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Johansson & Hansson, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Agrawal, Brodie, & Brown, 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Shirey et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeaching and Learning in Nursing
AbbreviationTeach. Learn. Nurs.
ISSN (print)1557-3087
ScopeFundamentals and skills
Leadership and Management
Research and Theory

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