How to format your references using the Teaching and Learning in Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teaching and Learning in Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Campbell, C. T. (2004). Physics. The active site in nanoparticle gold catalysis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5694), 234–235.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mellman, I., & Clausen, B. E. (2010). Immunology. Beta-catenin balances immunity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5993), 767–769.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moray, C., Game, E. T., & Maxted, N. (2014). Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: a case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Scientific Reports, 4, 5247.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Stone, M. D., Mihalusova, M., O’connor, C. M., Prathapam, R., Collins, K., & Zhuang, X. (2007). Stepwise protein-mediated RNA folding directs assembly of telomerase ribonucleoprotein. Nature, 446(7134), 458–461.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schulman, F. Y. (2016). Veterinarian’s Guide to Maximizing Biopsy Results. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Presutti, V., d’Amato, C., Gandon, F., d’Aquin, M., Staab, S., & Tordai, A. (Eds.). (2014). The Semantic Web: Trends and Challenges: 11th International Conference, ESWC 2014, Anissaras, Crete, Greece, May 25-29, 2014. Proceedings (Vol. 8465). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Genovese, V., Garg, D., & Rispoli, D. (2013). Labeled Goal-Directed Search in Access Control Logic. In A. Jøsang, P. Samarati, & M. Petrocchi (Eds.), Security and Trust Management: 8th International Workshop, STM 2012, Pisa, Italy, September 13-14, 2012, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 65–80). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teaching and Learning in Nursing.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2017, January 4). Tropical Biofuel Crops Can Store More Soil Carbon Than They Release. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1972). Government Computer Acquisition Practices (B-115369). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richardson, C. (2005). Edgard Varèse and the Visual Avant-Garde: A Comparative Study of Intégrales and Works of Art by Marcel Duchamp [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chapman, M. M. (2014, July 19). Hundreds in Detroit Protest Over Move to Shut Off Water. New York Times, A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Campbell, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Campbell, 2004; Mellman & Clausen, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mellman & Clausen, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Moray et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Stone et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeaching and Learning in Nursing
AbbreviationTeach. Learn. Nurs.
ISSN (print)1557-3087
ScopeFundamentals and skills
Leadership and Management
Research and Theory

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