How to format your references using the Teaching and Learning in Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teaching and Learning in Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gravitz, L. (2015). Animal behaviour: Nested instincts. Nature, 521(7552), S60-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
DeLong, E. F., & Karl, D. M. (2005). Genomic perspectives in microbial oceanography. Nature, 437(7057), 336–342.
A journal article with 3 authors
Parsons, T., Ji, C., & Kirby, E. (2008). Stress changes from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and increased hazard in the Sichuan basin. Nature, 454(7203), 509–510.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Foukal, P., Fröhlich, C., Spruit, H., & Wigley, T. M. L. (2006). Variations in solar luminosity and their effect on the Earth’s climate. Nature, 443(7108), 161–166.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith, V. (2012). Toni Morrison. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Quarteroni, A. (2006). Scientific Computing with MATLAB and Octave: Second Edition (F. Saleri, Ed.; Vol. 2). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Han, L., Hancock, E. R., & Wilson, R. C. (2011). Entropy versus Heterogeneity for Graphs. In X. Jiang, M. Ferrer, & A. Torsello (Eds.), Graph-Based Representations in Pattern Recognition: 8th IAPR-TC-15 International Workshop, GbRPR 2011, Münster, Germany, May 18-20, 2011. Proceedings (pp. 32–41). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teaching and Learning in Nursing.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, August 22). Physicists Create World’s Coolest Molecules. IFLScience; IFLScience.’s-coolest-molecules/


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Tax Systems Modernization: Progress Mixed In Addressing Critical Success Factors (T-IMTEC-92-13). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
George, K. G. (2017). Revisiting “The Blue Line Blues”: Transit-Oriented Development in Inner-City Areas of Los Angeles County, 2000-2016 [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2014, May 9). Tatiana Samoilova, 80, Soviet Movie Star. New York Times, B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gravitz, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (DeLong & Karl, 2005; Gravitz, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (DeLong & Karl, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Parsons et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Foukal et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeaching and Learning in Nursing
AbbreviationTeach. Learn. Nurs.
ISSN (print)1557-3087
ScopeFundamentals and skills
Leadership and Management
Research and Theory

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