How to format your references using the Teachers and Teaching citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teachers and Teaching. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2005). Attractive information. Nature, 435(7041), 529.
A journal article with 2 authors
Anderson, R. T., & Lovley, D. R. (2000). Hexadecane decay by methanogenesis. Nature, 404(6779), 722–723.
A journal article with 3 authors
Albert, R., Jeong, H., & Barabasi, A. L. (2000). Error and attack tolerance of complex networks. Nature, 406(6794), 378–382.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Shimojima, M., Miyazawa, T., Ikeda, Y., McMonagle, E. L., Haining, H., Akashi, H., … Willett, B. J. (2004). Use of CD134 as a primary receptor by the feline immunodeficiency virus. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5661), 1192–1195.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bertolo, D. (2016). Interactions on Digital Tablets in the Context of 3D Geometry Learning. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Urban, P., & Caplan, L. R. (Eds.). (2011). Brainstem Disorders. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ambler, S. W. (2008). Tailoring Usability into Agile Software Development Projects. In E. L.-C. Law, E. T. Hvannberg, & G. Cockton (Eds.), Maturing Usability: Quality in Software, Interaction and Value (pp. 75–95). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teachers and Teaching.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, May 6). Researchers Observe Exact Moment When A Mind Is Changed. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Head Start: Challenges in Monitoring Program Quality and Demonstrating Results (No. HEHS-98-186). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Charpentier, D. T. (2017). Why Dey Talk Like Dat?: A Study of the Status of Cajun English as a Dialect or an Accent (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, L. (2017, March 24). On What He Really Said, and Whom He Is Blaming for It. New York Times, p. A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Anderson & Lovley, 2000; Smaglik, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Anderson & Lovley, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Albert, Jeong, & Barabasi, 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Shimojima et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeachers and Teaching
AbbreviationTeach. Teach.
ISSN (print)1354-0602
ISSN (online)1470-1278
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)

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