How to format your references using the Teachers and Teaching citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teachers and Teaching. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schaefer, H. F. (2015). Paul von Ragué Schleyer (1930-2014). Nature, 517(7532), 22.
A journal article with 2 authors
Carbone, F. R., & Gebhardt, T. (2014). Immunology. A neighborhood watch upholds local immune protection. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6205), 40–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
Braunschweig, H., Radacki, K., & Schneider, A. (2010). Oxoboryl complexes: boron-oxygen triple bonds stabilized in the coordination sphere of platinum. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5976), 345–347.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Liu, K., Victora, G. D., Schwickert, T. A., Guermonprez, P., Meredith, M. M., Yao, K., Chu, F.-F., Randolph, G. J., Rudensky, A. Y., & Nussenzweig, M. (2009). In vivo analysis of dendritic cell development and homeostasis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5925), 392–397.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Subramanian, M. N. (2013). Plastics Additives and Testing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Barth, G. (Ed.). (2013). Yarrowia lipolytica: Biotechnological Applications (Vol. 25). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Brüggemann, R., & Patil, G. P. (2011). Structures of Partial Orders. In G. P. Patil (Ed.), Ranking and Prioritization for Multi-indicator Systems: Introduction to Partial Order Applications (pp. 57–74). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teachers and Teaching.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, March 11). Doctors Hope To Convert Fat Into Ears. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Information Resources: USDA Lacks Data on Major Computer Systems (AIMD-94-31). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeLutis-Eichenberger, A. N. (2010). El proceso semiótico de un héroe decimonónico: Un estudio en torno a los “textos-tumbas” de Andrés Bello [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, May 18). Beleaguered Bullpen Falters Again Even as Harvey Makes Progress. New York Times, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schaefer, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Carbone & Gebhardt, 2014; Schaefer, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Carbone & Gebhardt, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Braunschweig et al., 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Liu et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeachers and Teaching
AbbreviationTeach. Teach.
ISSN (print)1354-0602
ISSN (online)1470-1278
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)

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