How to format your references using the Teachers and Teaching citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teachers and Teaching. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Flight, M. H. (2013). Drug discovery: Structure-led design. Nature, 502(7471), S50-2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boltasseva, A., & Shalaev, V. M. (2015). Materials science. All that glitters need not be gold. Science (New York, N.Y.), 347(6228), 1308–1310.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stroud, R. M., Nittler, L. R., & Alexander, C. M. O. (2004). Polymorphism in presolar Al2O3 grains from asymptotic giant branch stars. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5689), 1455–1457.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hood, J. D., Bednarski, M., Frausto, R., Guccione, S., Reisfeld, R. A., Xiang, R., & Cheresh, D. A. (2002). Tumor regression by targeted gene delivery to the neovasculature. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5577), 2404–2407.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lovejoy, D. A. (2005). Neuroendocrinology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Shi, X., & Chen, Y. (Eds.). (2014). Machine Translation: 10th China Workshop, CWMT 2014, Macau, China, November 4-6, 2014. Proceedings (Vol. 493). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Li, Z., Yu, D., Xiong, W., Wang, D., & Tu, M. (2006). Aquatic plants diversity in arid zones of Northwest China: patterns, threats and conservation. In D. L. Hawksworth & A. T. Bull (Eds.), Marine, Freshwater, and Wetlands Biodiversity Conservation (pp. 49–76). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teachers and Teaching.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, March 18). How Quickly Would A Zombie Outbreak Spread? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Radio Communications: Congressional Action Needed to Ensure Agencies Collaborate to Develop a Joint Solution (GAO-09-133). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chavez, G. (2017). Creating Integrated, Inquiry Science Lessons Based on Early Childhood Science Activities [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Zernike, K. (2015, February 24). Once ‘Fixed,’ Now Pensions Haunt Christie. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Flight, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Boltasseva & Shalaev, 2015; Flight, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boltasseva & Shalaev, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Stroud et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Hood et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeachers and Teaching
AbbreviationTeach. Teach.
ISSN (print)1354-0602
ISSN (online)1470-1278
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)

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