How to format your references using the Teachers and Teaching citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teachers and Teaching. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brandenberger, R. (2007). Astronomy. A texture in the sky? Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5856), 1560–1561.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smetacek, V., & Zingone, A. (2013). Green and golden seaweed tides on the rise. Nature, 504(7478), 84–88.
A journal article with 3 authors
Spiegelhalter, D., Pearson, M., & Short, I. (2011). Visualizing uncertainty about the future. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6048), 1393–1400.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Roy, R., Kozlov, A. G., Lohman, T. M., & Ha, T. (2009). SSB protein diffusion on single-stranded DNA stimulates RecA filament formation. Nature, 461(7267), 1092–1097.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bajpai, P. (2010). Environmentally Friendly Production of Pulp and Paper. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hayat, M. A. (Ed.). (2013). Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells, Volume 10: Therapeutic Applications in Disease and Injury (Vol. 10). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
HaCohen-Kerner, Y., Kass, A., & Peretz, A. (2008). Abbreviation Disambiguation: Experiments with Various Variants of the One Sense per Discourse Hypothesis. In E. Kapetanios, V. Sugumaran, & M. Spiliopoulou (Eds.), Natural Language and Information Systems: 13th International Conference on Applications of Natural Language to Information Systems, NLDB 2008 London, UK, June 24-27, 2008 Proceedings (pp. 27–39). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teachers and Teaching.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, September 12). Scientists Develop Quick And Easy Method To Produce White Blood Cells From Skin Cells. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Space Station: U.S. Life-Cycle Funding Requirements (T-NSIAD-98-212). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mai, J. (2017). College Application Behaviors: Factors Impacting the College Choices of High School Seniors [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017, May 25). Film Series. New York Times, C24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brandenberger, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Brandenberger, 2007; Smetacek & Zingone, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smetacek & Zingone, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Spiegelhalter et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Roy et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeachers and Teaching
AbbreviationTeach. Teach.
ISSN (print)1354-0602
ISSN (online)1470-1278
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)

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