How to format your references using the Teachers and Teaching citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teachers and Teaching. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lehmann, F. O. (2001). Matching spiracle opening to metabolic need during flight in Drosophila. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5548), 1926–1929.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sherratt, T. N., & Roberts, G. (2012). Ecology. When paths to cooperation converge. Science (New York, N.Y.), 337(6100), 1304–1305.
A journal article with 3 authors
Osborne, I., Lavine, M., & Coontz, R. (2010). Materials for electronics. Looking beyond silicon. Introduction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5973), 1595.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kennedy, J. A., Barabé, F., Poeppl, A. G., Wang, J. C. Y., & Dick, J. E. (2007). Comment on “Tumor growth need not be driven by rare cancer stem cells.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5857), 1722; author reply 1722.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Phillips, J. J., Brantley, W., & Phillips, P. P. (2011). Project Management ROI. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Alam, M. D. (2016). Project-Management in Practice: A Guideline and Toolbox for Successful Projects (U. F. Gühl, Ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Fournais, S., & Helffer, B. (2009). Constant Field Models in Dimension 2: Noncompact Case. In B. Helffer (Ed.), Spectral Methods in Surface Superconductivity (pp. 45–50). Birkhäuser.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teachers and Teaching.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, October 14). Spiders Can Hear You From Several Meters Away – Even Without Any Ears. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). D.C. Nonappropriated Revenue (AIMD-94-71R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blackwell, P. K. (2017). Timbre Fantasy: An Analysis on Coloristic Choices in John Corigliano’s Etude Fantasy [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barry, E., & Kishkovsky, S. (2012, March 5). Russian Turnout Includes Thousands of Eager Election Observers. New York Times, A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lehmann, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Lehmann, 2001; Sherratt & Roberts, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sherratt & Roberts, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Osborne et al., 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kennedy et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeachers and Teaching
AbbreviationTeach. Teach.
ISSN (print)1354-0602
ISSN (online)1470-1278
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)

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