How to format your references using the Teacher Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teacher Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Temple, S. 2001. “The Development of Neural Stem Cells.” Nature 414 (6859): 112–117.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kronenberg, Mitchell, and Alexander Rudensky. 2005. “Regulation of Immunity by Self-Reactive T Cells.” Nature 435 (7042): 598–604.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ganesh, G., R. Osu, and E. Naito. 2013. “Feeling the Force: Returning Haptic Signals Influence Effort Inference during Motor Coordination.” Scientific Reports 3: 2648.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wang, X. B., X. Yang, J. B. Nicholas, and L. S. Wang. 2001. “Bulk-like Features in the Photoemission Spectra of Hydrated Doubly Charged Anion Clusters.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 294 (5545): 1322–1325.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hoppert, Michael. 2005. Microscopic Techniques in Biotechnology. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Alvo, Mayer. 2014. Statistical Methods for Ranking Data. Edited by Philip L. H. Yu. Frontiers in Probability and the Statistical Sciences. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lacruz, César R., Javier Sáenz de Santamaría, and Ricardo H. Bardales. 2014. “Astrocytic Tumors.” In Central Nervous System Intraoperative Cytopathology, edited by Javier Saénz de Santamaría and Ricardo H. Bardales, 57–86. Essentials in Cytopathology. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teacher Development.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “Check Out This Remote Control SpaceX Falcon 9 Rocket Nail Its Landing.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. Next Generation Air Transportation System: Issues Associated with Midterm Implementation of Capabilities and Full System Transformation. GAO-09-481T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Iniguez, Aracely. 2013. “The Latino Immigrant Families and Involvement with Child Welfare System: A Grant Proposal.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Belson, Ken, and Mary Pilon. 2012. “Marathon Officials Determining How to Proceed.” New York Times, October 30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Temple 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Temple 2001; Kronenberg and Rudensky 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kronenberg and Rudensky 2005)
  • Three authors: (Ganesh, Osu, and Naito 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wang et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeacher Development
ISSN (print)1366-4530
ISSN (online)1747-5120

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