How to format your references using the Teacher Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teacher Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ide, Satoshi. 2010. “Striations, Duration, Migration and Tidal Response in Deep Tremor.” Nature 466 (7304): 356–359.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hill, Andrew, and Graham Cooke. 2014. “Medicine. Hepatitis C Can Be Cured Globally, but at What Cost?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 345 (6193): 141–142.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goes, Saskia, Fabio A. Capitanio, and Gabriele Morra. 2008. “Evidence of Lower-Mantle Slab Penetration Phases in Plate Motions.” Nature 451 (7181): 981–984.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Tsukatani, Yusuke, Haruki Yamamoto, Jiro Harada, Taichi Yoshitomi, Jiro Nomata, Masahiro Kasahara, Tadashi Mizoguchi, Yuichi Fujita, and Hitoshi Tamiaki. 2013. “An Unexpectedly Branched Biosynthetic Pathway for Bacteriochlorophyll b Capable of Absorbing Near-Infrared Light.” Scientific Reports 3 (February): 1217.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shanmugam, Ramalingam, and Rajan Chattamvelli. 2015. Statistics for Scientists and Engineers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Xiao, Tianyuan, Lin Zhang, and Shiwei Ma, eds. 2012. System Simulation and Scientific Computing: International Conference, ICSC 2012, Shanghai, China, October 27-30, 2012. Proceedings, Part II. Vol. 327. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
ter Beek, Maurice H., Mieke Massink, and Diego Latella. 2006. “Towards Model Checking Stochastic Aspects of the Thinkteam User Interface.” In Interactive Systems. Design, Specification, and Verification: 12th International Workshop, DSVIS 2005, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, July 13-15, 2005. Revised Papers, edited by Stephen W. Gilroy and Michael D. Harrison, 39–50. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teacher Development.

Blog post
Evans, Katy. 2017. “Global Warming Is Turning Cities Into Costly ‘Urban Heat Islands.’” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Child Labor: Information on Federal Enforcement Efforts. HRD-92-127FS. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kashyap, Shashi Kant. 2017. “Bit Error Rate Performance of 4x2 Space-Time MIMO-OFDM Conjugate Cancellation Techniques.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, James L. 1972. “Preserving Our Relevance.” New York Times, September 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ide 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Ide 2010; Hill and Cooke 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hill and Cooke 2014)
  • Three authors: (Goes, Capitanio, and Morra 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Tsukatani et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeacher Development
ISSN (print)1366-4530
ISSN (online)1747-5120

Other styles