How to format your references using the Teacher Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teacher Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, J. 2000. “Nice Work--but Is It Science?” Nature 408 (6810): 293.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hawthorne, D. J., and S. Via. 2001. “Genetic Linkage of Ecological Specialization and Reproductive Isolation in Pea Aphids.” Nature 412 (6850): 904–907.
A journal article with 3 authors
Longrich, Nicholas R., Bhart-Anjan S. Bhullar, and Jacques A. Gauthier. 2012. “A Transitional Snake from the Late Cretaceous Period of North America.” Nature 488 (7410): 205–208.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ludwig, M. Z., C. Bergman, N. H. Patel, and M. Kreitman. 2000. “Evidence for Stabilizing Selection in a Eukaryotic Enhancer Element.” Nature 403 (6769): 564–567.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bitam, Salim, and Abdelhamid Mellouk. 2014. Bio-Inspired Routing Protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wu, Weili, and Ovidiu Daescu, eds. 2010. Combinatorial Optimization and Applications: 4th International Conference, COCOA 2010, Kailua-Kona, HI, USA, December 18-20, 2010, Proceedings, Part II. Vol. 6509. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Müller, Marco, Benjamin Kersten, and Michael Goedicke. 2011. “A Question-Based Method for Deriving Software Architectures.” In Software Architecture: 5th European Conference, ECSA 2011, Essen, Germany, September 13-16, 2011. Proceedings, edited by Ivica Crnkovic, Volker Gruhn, and Matthias Book, 35–42. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teacher Development.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Stunning Photos Of Dried Whisky Under A Microscope.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1979. Acquisition of Automatic Data Processing Equipment at Federal Judicial Center. B-193861. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Le Blanc, Jordan D. 2017. “Helping African American Middle School Students Transition to High School with the New Normal Project: A Grant Proposal.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lowry, Mary Pauline. 2014. “Fire Starter.” New York Times, October 17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Smith 2000; Hawthorne and Via 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hawthorne and Via 2001)
  • Three authors: (Longrich, Bhullar, and Gauthier 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ludwig et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeacher Development
ISSN (print)1366-4530
ISSN (online)1747-5120

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