How to format your references using the Teacher Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teacher Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Newman, M. 2000. “Applied Mathematics. The Power of Design.” Nature 405 (6785): 412–413.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wyatt, Michael B., and Harry Y. McSween Jr. 2002. “Spectral Evidence for Weathered Basalt as an Alternative to Andesite in the Northern Lowlands of Mars.” Nature 417 (6886): 263–266.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gómez, José M., Miguel Verdú, and Francisco Perfectti. 2010. “Ecological Interactions Are Evolutionarily Conserved across the Entire Tree of Life.” Nature 465 (7300): 918–921.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Dewar, Hilary, Kozo Tanaka, Kim Nasmyth, and Tomoyuki U. Tanaka. 2004. “Tension between Two Kinetochores Suffices for Their Bi-Orientation on the Mitotic Spindle.” Nature 428 (6978): 93–97.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. 2014. List of MAK and BAT Values 2014. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Kaul, Sunil C., and Renu Wadhwa, eds. 2012. Mortalin Biology: Life, Stress and Death. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhao, Muyu, Lizhu Song, and Xiaobao Fan. 2011. “The Application of the Boundary Theory of Phase Diagrams to the Quaternary and Higher Number Component Phase Diagrams.” In The Boundary Theory of Phase Diagrams and Its Application: Rules for Phase Diagram Construction with Phase Regions and Their Boundaries, edited by Lizhu Song and Xiaobao Fan, 92–106. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teacher Development.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Autistic Kids Low On Vital Social Hormone, Study Suggests.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Federal Research: Super Collider Is Over Budget and Behind Schedule. RCED-93-87. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Galyer, Darin L. 2019. “The Influence of Reference Objects on Vector-Based Memory Representations.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, Benjamin, and William K. Rashbaum. 2017. “Before Times Sq. Crash, A String of Legal Issues And a Fall Into Paranoia.” New York Times, May 19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Newman 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Newman 2000; Wyatt and McSween 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wyatt and McSween 2002)
  • Three authors: (Gómez, Verdú, and Perfectti 2010)
  • 4 or more authors: (Dewar et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeacher Development
ISSN (print)1366-4530
ISSN (online)1747-5120

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