How to format your references using the Teacher Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teacher Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carlsson, A. 2001. “A Paradigm Shift in Brain Research.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 294 (5544): 1021–1024.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wijffels, René H., and Maria J. Barbosa. 2010. “An Outlook on Microalgal Biofuels.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 329 (5993): 796–799.
A journal article with 3 authors
Külheim, Carsten, Jon Agren, and Stefan Jansson. 2002. “Rapid Regulation of Light Harvesting and Plant Fitness in the Field.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 297 (5578): 91–93.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hou, Jianhua, Chuanbao Cao, Xilan Ma, Faryal Idrees, Bin Xu, Xin Hao, and Wei Lin. 2014. “From Rice Bran to High Energy Density Supercapacitors: A New Route to Control Porous Structure of 3D Carbon.” Scientific Reports 4 (December): 7260.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bielecki, Tomasz R., Damiano Brigo, and Fédéric Patras. 2011. Credit Risk Frontiers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sun, Maosong, Yang Liu, and Jun Zhao, eds. 2014. Chinese Computational Linguistics and Natural Language Processing Based on Naturally Annotated Big Data: 13th China National Conference, CCL 2014, and Second International Symposium, NLP-NABD 2014, Wuhan, China, October 18-19, 2014. Proceedings. Vol. 8801. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Scata, Kimberly A., and Wafik S. El-Deiry. 2007. “P53, BRCA1 and Breast Cancer Chemoresistance.” In Breast Cancer Chemosensitivity, edited by Dihua Yu and Mien-Chie Hung, 70–86. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teacher Development.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2015. “Humans And Neanderthals Mated More Recently Than Thought.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1981. Achieving Greater Economies in Data Processing in Federal Government. 115926. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen, Jonathan. 2012. “Adherence to Medications among Vietnamese Americans 65 Years of Age and Older.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Witz, Billy, and Mary Pilon. 2014. “Stars’ Newest Must-Have Item: The Clippers.” New York Times, April 30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Carlsson 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Carlsson 2001; Wijffels and Barbosa 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wijffels and Barbosa 2010)
  • Three authors: (Külheim, Agren, and Jansson 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Hou et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeacher Development
ISSN (print)1366-4530
ISSN (online)1747-5120

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