How to format your references using the Teacher Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Teacher Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shevde, Nirupama. 2012. “Stem Cells: Flexible Friends.” Nature 483 (7387): S22-6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rohrer, Franz, and Harald Berresheim. 2006. “Strong Correlation between Levels of Tropospheric Hydroxyl Radicals and Solar Ultraviolet Radiation.” Nature 442 (7099): 184–187.
A journal article with 3 authors
Copeland, Neal G., Nancy A. Jenkins, and Stephen J. O’Brien. 2002. “Genomics. Mmu 16--Comparative Genomic Highlights.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5573): 1617–1618.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Yeromin, Andriy V., Shenyuan L. Zhang, Weihua Jiang, Ying Yu, Olga Safrina, and Michael D. Cahalan. 2006. “Molecular Identification of the CRAC Channel by Altered Ion Selectivity in a Mutant of Orai.” Nature 443 (7108): 226–229.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Leleux, Benoît, Hans van Swaay, and Esmeralda Megally. 2015. Private Equity 4.0. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Xi, Beidou. 2016. Optimization of Solid Waste Conversion Process and Risk Control of Groundwater Pollution. Edited by Yonghai Jiang, Mingxiao Li, Yu Yang, and Caihong Huang. 1st ed. 2016. SpringerBriefs in Environmental Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Knight, Jane. 2014. “Is Internationalisation of Higher Education Having an Identity Crisis?” In The Forefront of International Higher Education: A Festschrift in Honor of Philip G. Altbach, edited by Alma Maldonado-Maldonado and Roberta Malee Bassett, 75–87. Higher Education Dynamics. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Teacher Development.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. “The Human Heart Begins Beating Just 16 Days After Conception.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. Motor Carrier Safety: FMCSA Has Devoted a Small but Increasing Amount of Resources to Develop the Compliance, Safety, Accountability Program but Is Requesting a Significant Increase for Full Implementation. GAO-11-416R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boyle, Chelsea N. 2013. “Support Program for Transition Age Youth: A Grant Proposal.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Corkery, Michael. 2017. “Toys ‘R’ Us Is Said To Weigh Bankruptcy.” New York Times, September 6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Shevde 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Shevde 2012; Rohrer and Berresheim 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rohrer and Berresheim 2006)
  • Three authors: (Copeland, Jenkins, and O’Brien 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Yeromin et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleTeacher Development
ISSN (print)1366-4530
ISSN (online)1747-5120

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