How to format your references using the Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Piot, P. Particle Physics: Positrons Ride the Wave. Nature 2015, 524, 422–423.
A journal article with 2 authors
Waller, L.; Tian, L. Computational Imaging: Machine Learning for 3D Microscopy. Nature 2015, 523, 416–417.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fearon, D.T.; Manders, P.; Wagner, S.D. Arrested Differentiation, the Self-Renewing Memory Lymphocyte, and Vaccination. Science 2001, 293, 248–250.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhou, D.; Liu, S.; Oeding, J.; Zhao, S. Forest Cutting and Impacts on Carbon in the Eastern United States. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3547.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prutchi, D.; Norris, M. Design and Development of Medical Electronic Instrumentation; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2004; ISBN 9780471681847.
An edited book
Comparative Analyses of Operating Hours and Working Times in the European Union; Smith, M., Cette, G., Bauer, F., Delsen, L., Eds.; Contributions to Economics; Physica-Verlag HD: Heidelberg, 2009; ISBN 9783790821840.
A chapter in an edited book
Roy, U.; Majumder, M. Methodology. In Impact of Climate Change on Small Scale Hydro-turbine Selections; Majumder, M., Ed.; SpringerBriefs in Energy; Springer: Singapore, 2016; pp. 13–18 ISBN 9789812872388.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Systems.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. Pluto’s Halo Craters Revealed In New Images (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Post-FTS 2000 Strategy; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1994;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parajuli, B. Students’ Motivations towards Volunteerism: A Comparative Study of the United States and Nepal. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana: Lafayette, LA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. Russia: Fire Destroys Church Near Ravine Where Remains of a Czar Were Found. New York Times 2010, A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSystems
ISSN (online)2079-8954

Other styles