How to format your references using the Symbiosis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Symbiosis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Helliwell JR (2013) Biochemistry. How to solve protein structures with an X-ray laser. Science 339:146–147
A journal article with 2 authors
Wolpert L, Szathmáry E (2002) Multicellularity: evolution and the egg. Nature 420:745
A journal article with 3 authors
Jasny BR, Kelner KL, Pennisi E (2008) Genetics of behavior. From genes to social behavior. Introduction. Science 322:891
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Nagpal P, Lindquist NC, Oh S-H, Norris DJ (2009) Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials. Science 325:594–597

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Samuel GR (2010) Formulas and Calculations for Drilling Operations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Li D, Chen Y (eds) (2012) Computer and Computing Technologies in Agriculture V: 5th IFIP TC 5/SIG 5.1 Conference, CCTA 2011, Beijing, China, October 29-31, 2011, Proceedings, Part II. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Bernecker PM (2008) Therapeutic Approaches and Mechanisms of Drug Action. In: Grampp S (ed) Radiology of Osteoporosis. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 53–68

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Symbiosis.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015) How Long Would It Take To Fall Through The Center Of The Earth? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2002) Aviation Finance: Distribution of Airport Grant Funds Complied with Statutory Requirements. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kantar L (2010) Clinical judgment among new nursing graduates: A multiple-case study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bogdanich W (2017) The Sheriff’s War. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Helliwell 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Wolpert and Szathmáry 2002; Helliwell 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wolpert and Szathmáry 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Nagpal et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleSymbiosis
ISSN (print)0334-5114
ISSN (online)1878-7665
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences

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