How to format your references using the Symbiosis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Symbiosis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Balter M (2000) ARCHAEOLOGY: Paintings in Italian Cave May Be Oldest Yet. Science 290:419–421
A journal article with 2 authors
Martin TJ, Mundy GR (2007) Bone metastasis: can osteoclasts be excluded? Nature 445:E19; discussion E19-20
A journal article with 3 authors
Ahn Y-Y, Bagrow JP, Lehmann S (2010) Link communities reveal multiscale complexity in networks. Nature 466:761–764
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Berezovsky J, Mikkelsen MH, Gywat O, et al (2006) Nondestructive optical measurements of a single electron spin in a quantum dot. Science 314:1916–1920

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
AIChE Equipment Testing Procedure (1993) Particle Size Classifiers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Larco N (2014) Site Design for Multifamily Housing: Creating Livable, Connected Neighborhoods. Island Press/Center for Resource Economics, Washington, DC
A chapter in an edited book
Ridgway A, Quiñones G, Li L (2015) Dimensions of Play Activity. In: Quiñones G, Li L (eds) Early Childhood Pedagogical Play: A Cultural-Historical Interpretation Using Visual Methodology. Springer, Singapore, pp 47–68

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Symbiosis.

Blog post
Hale T (2015) Japan Will Open A Fully Robotic Lettuce Farm By 2017. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2008) Radio Communications: Congressional Action Needed to Ensure Agencies Collaborate to Develop a Joint Solution. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ton N-Q (2015) A hierarchical wireless network architecture for building automation and control systems: Implementation and simulation study. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M, Pogrebin R (2017) Concern Over Gala As Trumps Bow Out. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Balter 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Balter 2000; Martin and Mundy 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Martin and Mundy 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Berezovsky et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleSymbiosis
ISSN (print)0334-5114
ISSN (online)1878-7665
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences

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