How to format your references using the Symbiosis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Symbiosis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Service RF (2000) CHEMISTRY NOBEL: Getting a Charge Out of Plastics. Science 290:425–427
A journal article with 2 authors
Wiens DA, Snider NO (2001) Repeating deep earthquakes: evidence for fault reactivation at great depth. Science 293:1463–1466
A journal article with 3 authors
Aravanis AM, Pyle JL, Tsien RW (2003) Single synaptic vesicles fusing transiently and successively without loss of identity. Nature 423:643–647
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Nakanishi H, Bishop KJM, Kowalczyk B, et al (2009) Photoconductance and inverse photoconductance in films of functionalized metal nanoparticles. Nature 460:371–375

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lesca H, Lesca N (2014) Strategic Decisions and Weak Signals. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Ryan M, Gerard K, Amaya-Amaya M (eds) (2008) Using Discrete Choice Experiments to Value Health and Health Care. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Jungck P, Duncan R, Mulcahy D (2011) Variables: Identifiers, Basic Scalar Data Types, and Literals. In: Duncan R, Mulcahy D (eds) packetC Programming. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp 53–62

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Symbiosis.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Lunar Samples Support Giant Impact Theory. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013) School Lunch: Modifications Needed to Some of the New Nutrition Standards. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Matta Veera Venkata S (2015) Ensuring security and authentication using zero knowledge protocol in wireless sensor network applications. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2008) Justices Say Law Bars Retaliation Over Bias Claims. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Service 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Service 2000; Wiens and Snider 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wiens and Snider 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Nakanishi et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleSymbiosis
ISSN (print)0334-5114
ISSN (online)1878-7665
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences

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