How to format your references using the Symbiosis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Symbiosis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Merali Z (2011) Quantum computing: The power of discord. Nature 474:24–26
A journal article with 2 authors
Cummings CA, Relman DA (2002) Genomics and microbiology. Microbial forensics--"cross-examining pathogens". Science 296:1976–1979
A journal article with 3 authors
Cheng L, Hong W, Hao Z-C (2014) Generation of electromagnetic waves with arbitrary orbital angular momentum modes. Sci Rep 4:4814
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Iwasato T, Datwani A, Wolf AM, et al (2000) Cortex-restricted disruption of NMDAR1 impairs neuronal patterns in the barrel cortex. Nature 406:726–731

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Luo ACJ, Guo Y (2013) Vibro-Impact Dynamics. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Poleshchuk O (2011) Expert Fuzzy Information Processing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Friederich U, Coca D, Billings S, Juusola M (2009) Data Modelling for Analysis of Adaptive Changes in Fly Photoreceptors. In: Leung CS, Lee M, Chan JH (eds) Neural Information Processing: 16th International Conference, ICONIP 2009, Bangkok, Thailand, December 1-5, 2009, Proceedings, Part I. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 34–48

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Symbiosis.

Blog post
Carpineti C (2017) This Video Of A Razor Clam Digging Is Utterly Bizarre. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) Denver International Airport. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tsai H-Y (2006) Elucidating the Role of Protein Cofactors in RNA Catalysis Using Ribonuclease P as the Model System. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly H (2015) Mother’s Disapproval. New York Times BR14

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Merali 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Cummings and Relman 2002; Merali 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cummings and Relman 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Iwasato et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleSymbiosis
ISSN (print)0334-5114
ISSN (online)1878-7665
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences

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