How to format your references using the Symbiosis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Symbiosis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Briciu A-E (2014) Wavelet analysis of lunar semidiurnal tidal influence on selected inland rivers across the globe. Sci Rep 4:4193
A journal article with 2 authors
Yuan J, Poulin P (2014) Materials science. Fibers do the twist. Science 343:845–846
A journal article with 3 authors
Scaillet B, Pichavant M, Cioni R (2008) Upward migration of Vesuvius magma chamber over the past 20,000 years. Nature 455:216–219
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kumar R, Chaudhary K, Singla D, et al (2014) Designing of promiscuous inhibitors against pancreatic cancer cell lines. Sci Rep 4:4668

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cooper N, Forrest K, Cramp P (2008) Essential Guide to Generic Skills. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Falsafi B, VijayKumar TN (eds) (2005) Power-Aware Computer Systems: 4th International Workshop, PACS 2004, Portland, OR, USA, December 5, 2004, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Henle C, Schuettler M, Rickert J, Stieglitz T (2013) Towards Electrocorticographic Electrodes for Chronic Use in BCI Applications. In: Allison BZ, Dunne S, Leeb R, et al. (eds) Towards Practical Brain-Computer Interfaces: Bridging the Gap from Research to Real-World Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 85–103

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Symbiosis.

Blog post
Hale T (2017) Captive Orca Theme Parks Are Sadly Thriving In China. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Aviation Safety: FAA Is Considering Changes to Aviation Medical Standards. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Queener JD (2015) A Post-School Outcome Study of Students with Learning Disabilities. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Ember S, Grynbaum MM (2017) How a Retraction Humbled CNN. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Briciu 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Yuan and Poulin 2014; Briciu 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yuan and Poulin 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Kumar et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSymbiosis
ISSN (print)0334-5114
ISSN (online)1878-7665
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences

Other styles