How to format your references using the Swarm and Evolutionary Computation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Swarm and Evolutionary Computation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Butler, French take physics archives into the future, Nature. 407 (2000) 825.
A journal article with 2 authors
T.S. Stappenbeck, H. Miyoshi, The role of stromal stem cells in tissue regeneration and wound repair, Science. 324 (2009) 1666–1669.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. Humanes-Valera, G. Foffani, J. Aguilar, Increased cortical responses to forepaw stimuli immediately after peripheral deafferentation of hindpaw inputs, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7278.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
F. Kuemmeth, S. Ilani, D.C. Ralph, P.L. McEuen, Coupling of spin and orbital motion of electrons in carbon nanotubes, Nature. 452 (2008) 448–452.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K.-H. Chen, Power Management Techniques for Integrated Circuit Design, John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore, 2016.
An edited book
S. Ohno, N. Ohno, N. Terada, eds., In Vivo Cryotechnique in Biomedical Research and Application for Bioimaging of Living Animal Organs, 1st ed. 2016, Springer Japan, Tokyo, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Bashir, A. Rauber, Improving Retrievability and Recall by Automatic Corpus Partitioning, in: A. Hameurlain, J. Küng, R. Wagner, T. Bach Pedersen, A.M. Tjoa (Eds.), Transactions on Large-Scale Data- and Knowledge-Centered Systems II, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010: pp. 122–140.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Swarm and Evolutionary Computation.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Orangutan Learns To Produce Human-Like Sounds, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Department of Education: Key Aspects of the Federal Direct Loan Program’s Cost Estimates, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.H. Ashrafzadeh, Provision of community services for the mentally challenged population in Iran, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
LISA W. FODERARO; Reporting for this article was contributed by Ford Fessenden, as well as by Kathleen McGrory in Westchester, F. Akhtar, Sophia Chang on, J. Koblin, Nate Schweber in, A. Lazo, A.S. in Connecticut, That Sound You Hear? The Market Coming Down to Earth, New York Times. (2006) 14LI5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSwarm and Evolutionary Computation
AbbreviationSwarm Evol. Comput.
ISSN (print)2210-6502
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
General Mathematics

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