How to format your references using the Swarm and Evolutionary Computation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Swarm and Evolutionary Computation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Luber-Narod, Soft money is hard to find, Science. 290 (2000) 453b.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. Meder, K. Simons, Cell biology. Ras on the roundabout, Science. 307 (2005) 1731–1733.
A journal article with 3 authors
R.S. Khush, F. Leulier, B. Lemaitre, Immunology. Pathogen surveillance--the flies have it, Science. 296 (2002) 273–275.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
N. Hoffman, L.P. Knauth, S. Klonowski, D. Burt, R.S. Saunders, R.W. Zurek, P.T. Doran, S.L. Forman, Ideas about the surface runoff features on Mars, Science. 290 (2000) 711c–4c.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Zinkin, Rebuilding Trust in Banks, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2013.
An edited book
F.-J. Lübken, ed., Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System (CAWSES): Highlights from a Priority Program, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
E. Kuźniak, The Ascorbate–Gluathione Cycle and Related Redox Signals in Plant–Pathogen Interactions, in: N.A. Anjum, M.-T. Chan, S. Umar (Eds.), Ascorbate-Glutathione Pathway and Stress Tolerance in Plants, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2010: pp. 115–136.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Swarm and Evolutionary Computation.

Blog post
J. Fang, Alien-Looking Spiky, Leggy Worm Gets a Head for the First Time, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Propriety of the City Edges Grant Awarded to the Suburban Action Institute, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.M. Gikiri, Effects of attitude, norms, and perceived behavior control on intentions to become a teen father, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
GEORGE GENE GUSTINES; Compiled by BEN SISARIO, Graphic Bullying, New York Times. (2010) C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSwarm and Evolutionary Computation
AbbreviationSwarm Evol. Comput.
ISSN (print)2210-6502
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
General Mathematics

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