How to format your references using the Swarm and Evolutionary Computation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Swarm and Evolutionary Computation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T. May, Isolation is not the answer, Nature. 429 (2004) 603.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.L. Rauch, W.A. Carlezon Jr, Neuroscience. Illuminating the neural circuitry of compulsive behaviors, Science. 340 (2013) 1174–1175.
A journal article with 3 authors
N.K. Dubash, M. Fleurbaey, S. Kartha, Climate policy. Political implications of data presentation, Science. 345 (2014) 36–37.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T. Higham, T. Compton, C. Stringer, R. Jacobi, B. Shapiro, E. Trinkaus, B. Chandler, F. Gröning, C. Collins, S. Hillson, P. O’Higgins, C. FitzGerald, M. Fagan, The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in northwestern Europe, Nature. 479 (2011) 521–524.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, A Practical Approach to Hazard Identification for Operations and Maintenance Workers, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
V. Deved¿ic, Model Driven Engineering and Ontology Development, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
I. Kriz, A. Pultr, Integration I: Multivariable Riemann Integral and Basic Ideas Toward the Lebesgue Integral, in: A. Pultr (Ed.), Introduction to Mathematical Analysis, Springer, Basel, 2013: pp. 97–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Swarm and Evolutionary Computation.

Blog post
E. Andrew, The Autonomous Killing Systems Of The Future Are Already Here, They’re Just Not Necessarily Weapons – Yet, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, FAA Reauthorization: Opportunity Exists to Address Safety, Capacity, and Efficiency Issues, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R.A. Russo, Using a socio -cultural framework to evaluate farmland preservation policy success in Maryland, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
D. Kelly, Unplugged, New York Times. (2001) 723.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSwarm and Evolutionary Computation
AbbreviationSwarm Evol. Comput.
ISSN (print)2210-6502
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
General Mathematics

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