How to format your references using the Swarm and Evolutionary Computation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Swarm and Evolutionary Computation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R.M. Wightman, Detection technologies. Probing cellular chemistry in biological systems with microelectrodes, Science. 311 (2006) 1570–1574.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Hemingway, A. Craig, Parasitology. New ways to control malaria, Science. 303 (2004) 1984–1985.
A journal article with 3 authors
R.B. Mackenzie, C.T. Dewberry, K.R. Leopold, SULFUR CHEMISTRY. Gas phase observation and microwave spectroscopic characterization of formic sulfuric anhydride, Science. 349 (2015) 58–61.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L.M. Loong, X. Qiu, Z.P. Neo, P. Deorani, Y. Wu, C.S. Bhatia, M. Saeys, H. Yang, Strain-enhanced tunneling magnetoresistance in MgO magnetic tunnel junctions, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6505.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L. Smaini, RF Analog Impairments Modeling for Communication Systems Simulation, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2012.
An edited book
P.S. Agutter, About Life: Concepts in Modern Biology, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
B. Kegl, M. Kegl, S. Pehan, Effects of Biodiesel Usage on Injection Process Characteristics, in: M. Kegl, S. Pehan (Eds.), Green Diesel Engines: Biodiesel Usage in Diesel Engines, Springer, London, 2013: pp. 127–152.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Swarm and Evolutionary Computation.

Blog post
J. Fang, Trawling Below 600 Meters Hurts Both Biodiversity And Catch Values, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Bureau of Indian Affairs Schools: Expenditures in Selected Schools are Comparable to Similar Public Schools, But Data Are Insufficient to Judge Adequacy of Funding and Formulas, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. Chung, Health Information Infrastructure: Flows and Frictions, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Landler, Trump to a Grieving City: ‘This Is a Rough Time,’ New York Times. (2017) A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSwarm and Evolutionary Computation
AbbreviationSwarm Evol. Comput.
ISSN (print)2210-6502
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
General Mathematics

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