How to format your references using the Sustainable Computing: Informatics and Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sustainable Computing: Informatics and Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Bohannon, The Gonzo Scientist. Do scientists like green porno?, Science. 325 (2009) 1620.
A journal article with 2 authors
N.S. Joshi, T. Jacks, Immunology. Guilty by association, Science. 339 (2013) 1160–1161.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. Mulepati, A. Héroux, S. Bailey, Structural biology. Crystal structure of a CRISPR RNA-guided surveillance complex bound to a ssDNA target, Science. 345 (2014) 1479–1484.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.A. Hole, R.D. Catchings, K.C. St Clair, M.J. Rymer, D.A. Okaya, B.J. Carney, Steep-dip seismic imaging of the shallow San Andreas fault near Parkfield, Science. 294 (2001) 1513–1515.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P.P. Drake, F.J. Fabozzi, The Basics of Finance, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
W. Becker, ed., Advanced Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting Applications, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
S.-L. Lin, D.T.S. Wu, S.-Y. Ying, Recent Application of Intronic MicroRNA Agents in Cosmetics, in: S.-Y. Ying (Ed.), Current Perspectives in MicroRNAs (MiRNA), Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2008: pp. 51–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sustainable Computing: Informatics and Systems.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, Astronomers Produce Detailed Map Of Hydrogen In The Milky Way, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Community-Based Correctional Programs Can Do More To Help Offenders, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
F. Zarate Ramirez, Pedagogical and performance approach to selected bel canto songs and arias of Bellini and Donizetti, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Greenhouse, Justices, 5 to 4, Overturn 3 Texas Death Sentences, New York Times. (2007) A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSustainable Computing: Informatics and Systems
AbbreviationSustain. Comput. Inform. Syst.
ISSN (print)2210-5379
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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