How to format your references using the Ophthalmic Genetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmic Genetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Glabe C. Biomedicine. Avoiding collateral damage in Alzheimer’s disease treatment. Science. 2006;314(5799):602-603.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu J, Diamond J. Science and government. Revolutionizing China’s environmental protection. Science. 2008;319(5859):37-38.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ward CV, Kimbel WH, Johanson DC. Complete fourth metatarsal and arches in the foot of Australopithecus afarensis. Science. 2011;331(6018):750-753.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Golas MM, Sander B, Will CL, Lührmann R, Stark H. Molecular architecture of the multiprotein splicing factor SF3b. Science. 2003;300(5621):980-984.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Li Y. Computer Principles and Design in Verilog HDL. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Colaninno A, Byrne JA, Schwartz RA, eds. Competition in a Consolidating Environment. Springer US; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Priyadarshini Rai, Madasu Hanmandlu. Gaussian Function-Based Particle Swarm Optimization. In: Pant M, Deep K, Bansal JC, Nagar A, Das KN, eds. Proceedings of Fifth International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving: SocProS 2015, Volume 1. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Springer; 2016:57-67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmic Genetics.

Blog post
Davis J. Standing Rock Sioux Protests Victorious As US Army Denies Dakota Access Pipeline Permit. IFLScience. Published December 5, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. [Comments on FAA Reimbursement of Employees’ Ferry Fares]. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson DA. Job Satisfaction in the Operating Room: An Analysis of the Cultural Competence of Nurses. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justices to Hear Case on Use of Union Fees. New York Times. September 27, 2006:A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmic Genetics
AbbreviationOphthalmic Genet.
ISSN (print)1381-6810
ISSN (online)1744-5094
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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