How to format your references using the Ophthalmic Genetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmic Genetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sawyer RJ. The abdication of Pope Mary III...or Galileo’s revenge. Nature. 2000;406(6791):23.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reimann JDR, Jackson PK. Emi1 is required for cytostatic factor arrest in vertebrate eggs. Nature. 2002;416(6883):850-854.
A journal article with 3 authors
Minamimoto T, Hori Y, Kimura M. Complementary process to response bias in the centromedian nucleus of the thalamus. Science. 2005;308(5729):1798-1801.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mora CV, Davison M, Wild JM, Walker MM. Magnetoreception and its trigeminal mediation in the homing pigeon. Nature. 2004;432(7016):508-511.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Martinelli RJ, Milosevic DZ. Project Management ToolBox. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Wooliscroft B, Tamilia RD, Shapiro SJ, eds. A Twenty-First Century Guide to Aldersonian Marketing Thought. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Güell JL, Torrabadella M, Calatayud M, Gris O, Manero F, Gaytan J. Limbal Stem Cell Culture. In: Reinhard T, Larkin DFP, eds. Cornea and External Eye Disease. Essentials in Ophthalmology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006:57-64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmic Genetics.

Blog post
Andrew E. The Delta Aquarid Meteor Shower Peaks TONIGHT - Here’s How To Watch. IFLScience. Published July 28, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Drug Regulation: FDA’s Computer Systems Need To Be Better Managed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Do NH. An examination of support systems to enable Vietnamese immigrants to acquire English skills. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kleiman K. Change Sweeps Through Black Theater in Chicago. New York Times. July 8, 2011:A19B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmic Genetics
AbbreviationOphthalmic Genet.
ISSN (print)1381-6810
ISSN (online)1744-5094
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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