How to format your references using the Anesthesiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Anesthesiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Keeling RF: Atmosphere. Deglaciation mysteries. Science 2007; 316:1440–1
A journal article with 2 authors
Frieda KL, Block SM: Direct observation of cotranscriptional folding in an adenine riboswitch. Science 2012; 338:397–400
A journal article with 3 authors
Hoffman BD, Grashoff C, Schwartz MA: Dynamic molecular processes mediate cellular mechanotransduction. Nature 2011; 475:316–23
A journal article with 31 or more authors
Luo E-C, Chang Y-C, Sher Y-P, Huang W-Y, Chuang L-L, Chiu Y-C, Tsai M-H, Chuang EY, Lai L-C: MicroRNA-769-3p down-regulates NDRG1 and enhances apoptosis in MCF-7 cells during reoxygenation. Sci Rep 2014; 4:5908

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burton E: Business and Entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2016
An edited book
Hnyk D, McKee M: Boron: The Fifth Element, 1st ed. 2015. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2015
A chapter in an edited book
Lewis H: Complying with Regulations, Packaging for Sustainability. Edited by Verghese K, Lewis H, Fitzpatrick L. London, Springer, 2012, pp 155–69

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Anesthesiology.

Blog post
Taub B: Dogs Prefer Tummy Tickles To Treats, According To Science 2016 at <>


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Evaluation and the Research Process. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1979

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garfield-Kabbara JN: Through the Portal of Shame: A Path Toward Self-Love for Fatherless Daughters Living in Patriarchy 2014

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Turkewitz J: A State Inquiry Is Said To Target Job Agencies. New York Times 2013:A23

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAnesthesiology
ISSN (print)0003-3022
ISSN (online)1528-1175
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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