How to format your references using the Surface Science Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surface Science Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Meyer, Another remembered present, Science. 335 (2012) 415–416.
A journal article with 2 authors
I.F. Mirabel, I. Rodrigues, Formation of a black hole in the dark, Science. 300 (2003) 1119–1120.
A journal article with 3 authors
L. Mei, Y. Chen, J. Ma, Gas sensing of SnO2 nanocrystals revisited: developing ultra-sensitive sensors for detecting the H2S leakage of biogas, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6028.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S.V. Rakhilin, P.A. Olson, A. Nishi, N.N. Starkova, A.A. Fienberg, A.C. Nairn, D.J. Surmeier, P. Greengard, A network of control mediated by regulator of calcium/calmodulin-dependent signaling, Science. 306 (2004) 698–701.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P.N. Tattar, S. Ramaiah, B.G. Manjunath, A Course in Statistics With R, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
S. Wiak, A. Krawczyk, M. Trlep, eds., Computer Engineering in Applied Electromagnetism, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
P. McIlveen, Extending The Metaphor of Narrative to Dialogical Narrator, in: P. McIlveen, D.E. Schultheiss (Eds.), Social Constructionism in Vocational Psychology and Career Development, SensePublishers, Rotterdam, 2012: pp. 59–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surface Science Reports.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Extinct Kitten-Sized Marsupial Lion Named After David Attenborough, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Transportation Security: DHS Efforts to Eliminate Redundant Background Check Investigations, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.C. Grantham, Dual Eligibles’ Experience of Care in North Carolina’s Patient-Centered Medical Home, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, Olympic Leaders Mend U.S. Ties With the I.O.C, New York Times. (2013) D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurface Science Reports
AbbreviationSurf. Sci. Rep.
ISSN (print)0167-5729
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Materials Chemistry
Metals and Alloys
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Condensed Matter Physics
Surfaces and Interfaces

Other styles