How to format your references using the Surface Science Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surface Science Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. May, Risk and uncertainty, Nature. 411 (2001) 891.
A journal article with 2 authors
G.M. Whitesides, G.W. Crabtree, Don’t forget long-term fundamental research in energy, Science. 315 (2007) 796–798.
A journal article with 3 authors
H. Tanimura, J. Kanasaki, K. Tanimura, State-resolved ultrafast dynamics of impact ionization in InSb, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6849.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R.A. Patil, R.S. Devan, J.-H. Lin, Y. Liou, Y.-R. Ma, An efficient methodology for measurement of the average electrical properties of single one-dimensional NiO nanorods, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3070.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S.H. Fullman, Increasing Alpha with Options, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
J. Torbeyns, E. Lehtinen, J. Elen, eds., Describing and Studying Domain-Specific Serious Games, 1st ed. 2015, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Whiten, The Evolution of Hominin Culture and Its Ancient Pre-hominin Foundations, in: M.N. Haidle, N.J. Conard, M. Bolus (Eds.), The Nature of Culture: Based on an Interdisciplinary Symposium ‘The Nature of Culture’, Tübingen, Germany, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2016: pp. 27–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surface Science Reports.

Blog post
J. Davis, Hydroelectric Dams Drastically Reduce Biodiversity, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, DOD Business Transformation: Improved Management Oversight of Business System Modernization Efforts Needed, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Dahdah, Modeling an infrastructure safety rating for vulnerable road users in developing countries, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.J.O. Murphy, Cinéma Spirité: Dinner and Drinks at the Movies, New York Times. (2017) C8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurface Science Reports
AbbreviationSurf. Sci. Rep.
ISSN (print)0167-5729
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Materials Chemistry
Metals and Alloys
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Condensed Matter Physics
Surfaces and Interfaces

Other styles