How to format your references using the Surface Science Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surface Science Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T. Gehrels, Brains, courage and integrity, Nature. 404 (2000) 335.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. Estrin, I. Sim, Health care delivery. Open mHealth architecture: an engine for health care innovation, Science. 330 (2010) 759–760.
A journal article with 3 authors
P.M. Miller, S. Gavrilets, W.R. Rice, Sexual conflict via maternal-effect genes in ZW species, Science. 312 (2006) 73.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.D. Richardson, J.C. Kasper, C. Wang, J.W. Belcher, A.J. Lazarus, Cool heliosheath plasma and deceleration of the upstream solar wind at the termination shock, Nature. 454 (2008) 63–66.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Jones, J. Burger, Configuring SAP® ERP Financials and Controlling, Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA, 2009.
An edited book
J. Janas, P. Kurasov, A. Laptev, S. Naboko, eds., Operator Methods in Mathematical Physics: Conference on Operator Theory, Analysis and Mathematical Physics (OTAMP) 2010, Bedlewo, Poland, Springer, Basel, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
R. Rhodes, Justice in Allocations for Terrorism, Biological Warfare, and Public Health, in: M. Boylan (Ed.), Public Health Policy and Ethics, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2005: pp. 73–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surface Science Reports.

Blog post
E. Andrew, No Adverse Side Effects Found In Early Clinical Trial Of Powdered Measles Vaccine, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Student Loan Insurance Fund, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.H. Pak, A study of high-performing at-risk high school students and their perceptions on academic success and achievement, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
E. St. John Kelly, Bensonhurst Journal; The Time Has Come to Ride and Beep and Laugh Again, New York Times. (2004) 133.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurface Science Reports
AbbreviationSurf. Sci. Rep.
ISSN (print)0167-5729
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Materials Chemistry
Metals and Alloys
Surfaces, Coatings and Films
Condensed Matter Physics
Surfaces and Interfaces

Other styles