How to format your references using the Superconductor Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Superconductor Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sarewitz D 2011 Science agencies must bite innovation bullet Nature 471 137
A journal article with 2 authors
Giovannoni S J and Vergin K L 2012 Seasonality in ocean microbial communities Science 335 671–6
A journal article with 3 authors
Peizhen Z, Molnar P and Downs W R 2001 Increased sedimentation rates and grain sizes 2-4 Myr ago due to the influence of climate change on erosion rates Nature 410 891–7
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Heinrich A J, Gupta J A, Lutz C P and Eigler D M 2004 Single-atom spin-flip spectroscopy Science 306 466–9

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang W and Wan M 2016 Milling Simulation (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
O¿Donnell R W 2008 Intellectual Property in the Food Technology Industry: Protecting Your Innovation ed J J O¿Malley, R J Huis and G B Halt Jr (New York, NY: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Bakhtadze N N and Lototsky V A 2016 Knowledge-Based Models of Nonlinear Systems Based on Inductive Learning New Frontiers in Information and Production Systems Modelling and Analysis: Incentive Mechanisms, Competence Management, Knowledge-based Production Intelligent Systems Reference Library ed P Różewski, D Novikov, N Bakhtadze and O Zaikin (Cham: Springer International Publishing) pp 85–104

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Superconductor Science and Technology.

Blog post
Andrew E 2014 Exploiting Bacteria to Produce “Living Materials” IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2014 Small Business Innovation Research: Change in Program Eligibility Has Had Little Impact (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lansdon J 2010 A policy analysis of California’s three strikes law of 1994 Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crair B 2016 Where Mark Twain Found Inspiration New York Times TR9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSuperconductor Science and Technology
AbbreviationSupercond. Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0953-2048
ISSN (online)1361-6668
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Ceramics and Composites
Materials Chemistry
Metals and Alloys
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles