How to format your references using the Superconductor Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Superconductor Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alexander R M 2005 Physiology. Walking made simple Science 308 58–9
A journal article with 2 authors
Sunami A and Kurokawa K 2009 Recession Watch: No time for nationalism Nature 457 960–1
A journal article with 3 authors
MacLeod N, Benfield M and Culverhouse P 2010 Time to automate identification Nature 467 154–5
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Weller E, Cai W, Min S-K, Wu L, Ashok K and Yamagata T 2014 More-frequent extreme northward shifts of eastern Indian Ocean tropical convergence under greenhouse warming Sci. Rep. 4 6087

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bullard B 2016 Style and Statistics (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Proulx T 2011 Linking Models and Experiments, Volume 2: Proceedings of the 29th IMAC, A Conference on Structural Dynamics, 2011 (New York, NY: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Lago R M and LaMattina T A 2014 Chronic Coronary Artery Disease MGH Cardiology Board Review ed H K Gaggin and J L Januzzi Jr (London: Springer) pp 67–85

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Superconductor Science and Technology.

Blog post
Andrews R 2016 Volcanic Eruptions On Mars Used To Explode Through Ancient Ice Sheets IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1988 ADP Management Controls: Farmers Home Administration Can Improve Reporting of Weaknesses (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Albrinck B M 2010 An Exploratory Study of Urban Transportation and Air Quality Issues Using CO as an Indicator Doctoral dissertation (Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) S K 2004 World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Arrests In 2 Bombings New York Times A6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSuperconductor Science and Technology
AbbreviationSupercond. Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0953-2048
ISSN (online)1361-6668
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Ceramics and Composites
Materials Chemistry
Metals and Alloys
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles