How to format your references using the Superconductor Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Superconductor Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Corliss J 2012 Exercise: Powering up Nature 485 S62-3
A journal article with 2 authors
Nordborg M and Weigel D 2008 Next-generation genetics in plants Nature 456 720–3
A journal article with 3 authors
Kulathinal R J, Bettencourt B R and Hartl D L 2004 Compensated deleterious mutations in insect genomes Science 306 1553–4
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Mikołajczyk-Stecyna J, Korcz A, Gabriel M, Pawlaczyk K, Oszkinis G and Słomski R 2013 Risk factors in abdominal aortic aneurysm and in Polish population aortoiliac occlusive disease and differences between them [corrected] Sci. Rep. 3 3528

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Noyer J-M 2016 Transformation of Collective Intelligences (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Navab N, Hornegger J, Wells W M and Frangi A 2015 Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention -- MICCAI 2015: 18th International Conference, Munich, Germany, October 5-9, 2015, Proceedings, Part I vol 9349 (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Gama V and Almeida M 2009 Metallocenium Salts of Transition Metal Bisdichalcogenate Anions; Structure and Magnetic Properties Conducting and Magnetic Organometallic Molecular Materials Topics in Organometallic Chemistry ed M Fourmigué and L Ouahab (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 97–140

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Superconductor Science and Technology.

Blog post
Andrews R 2017 16th-Century Church Emerges From Dam Reservoir After Drought IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2004 Gulf War Illnesses: DOD’s Conclusions About U.S. Troops’ Exposure Cannot Be Adequately Supported (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cabrales M 2010 Gupta Rajpoot scheme for quark flavor mixing Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon M R and Schmitt E 2017 Showdown Expected in the Euphrates Valley, but It’s Complicated New York Times A6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSuperconductor Science and Technology
AbbreviationSupercond. Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0953-2048
ISSN (online)1361-6668
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Ceramics and Composites
Materials Chemistry
Metals and Alloys
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles