How to format your references using the Superconductor Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Superconductor Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Messersmith P B 2008 Materials science. Multitasking in tissues and materials Science 319 1767–8
A journal article with 2 authors
Fox K and Caterson B 2002 Neuroscience. Freeing the bain from the perineuronal net Science 298 1187–9
A journal article with 3 authors
Malinowski J T, Sharpe R J and Johnson J S 2013 Enantioselective synthesis of pactamycin, a complex antitumor antibiotic Science 340 180–2
A journal article with 99 or more authors
McKee R A, Walker F J, Nardelli M B, Shelton W A and Stocks G M 2003 The interface phase and the Schottky barrier for a crystalline dielectric on silicon Science 300 1726–30

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.G. Upton G 2016 Categorical Data Analysis by Example (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Ruyter B de, Wichert R, Keyson D V, Markopoulos P, Streitz N, Divitini M, Georgantas N and Mana Gomez A 2010 Ambient Intelligence: First International Joint Conference, AmI 2010, Malaga, Spain, November 10-12, 2010. Proceedings vol 6439 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Cumming J J and Van der Kleij F M 2016 Effective Enactment of Assessment for Learning and Student Diversity in Australia Assessment for Learning: Meeting the Challenge of Implementation The Enabling Power of Assessment ed D Laveault and L Allal (Cham: Springer International Publishing) pp 55–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Superconductor Science and Technology.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015 Men’s Magazine Prints Editions Using HIV-Infected Blood To Tackle Stigma IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2005 Federal Student Loans: Challenges in Estimating Federal Subsidy Costs (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clendening R J 2009 A structured methodology for unifying functional analysis with systems analysis to enhance system behavior knowledge Doctoral dissertation (Washington, DC: George Washington University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G 2012 Pondering Curses at Chavez Ravine New York Times SP2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSuperconductor Science and Technology
AbbreviationSupercond. Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0953-2048
ISSN (online)1361-6668
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Ceramics and Composites
Materials Chemistry
Metals and Alloys
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles