How to format your references using the Superconductor Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Superconductor Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gravitz L 2015 Animal behaviour: Nested instincts Nature 521 S60-1
A journal article with 2 authors
Brovkin V and Claussen M 2008 Comment on “Climate-driven ecosystem succession in the Sahara: the past 6000 years” Science 322 1326; author reply 1326
A journal article with 3 authors
Tseng C-H, Gobell J L and Sperling G 2004 Long-lasting sensitization to a given colour after visual search Nature 428 657–60
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Zubieta J-K, Heitzeg M M, Smith Y R, Bueller J A, Xu K, Xu Y, Koeppe R A, Stohler C S and Goldman D 2003 COMT val158met genotype affects mu-opioid neurotransmitter responses to a pain stressor Science 299 1240–3

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Palaveev P 2012 The Ensemble Practice (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Villalobos F J and Fereres E 2016 Principles of Agronomy for Sustainable Agriculture (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Lozneanu E and Sanduloviciu M 2008 Cell-like space charge configurations formed by self-organization in laboratory Unifying Themes in Complex Systems IV: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Complex Systems ed A A Minai and Y Bar-Yam (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 31–8

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Superconductor Science and Technology.

Blog post
Hamilton K 2017 Scientists Create An Artificial Synapse That Can Learn Autonomously IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1979 A Methodology for Reviewing Computer Software (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Than K 2015 The impact of companion pets on the well-being of older adults Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L 2007 Nassau Working to Close Gap in 2008 Budget New York Times LI2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSuperconductor Science and Technology
AbbreviationSupercond. Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0953-2048
ISSN (online)1361-6668
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Ceramics and Composites
Materials Chemistry
Metals and Alloys
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles