How to format your references using the Research in Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Research in Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Binder P-M. Mathematics. Frustration in complexity. Science 2008;320:322–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hilfinger A, Paulsson J. Systems biology: Defiant daughters and coordinated cousins. Nature 2015;519:422–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gugliotti LA, Feldheim DL, Eaton BE. RNA-mediated metal-metal bond formation in the synthesis of hexagonal palladium nanoparticles. Science 2004;304:850–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Shen Z, Zhao Z, Peng H, Nygren M. Formation of tough interlocking microstructures in silicon nitride ceramics by dynamic ripening. Nature 2002;417:266–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Joyce PM, Lipton D. Lamentations Through the Centuries. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Purcell R, Randall R, editors. 21st Century Perspectives on Music, Technology, and Culture: Listening Spaces. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Tavella R, Eslick GD. Epidemiology of Cardiac Syndrome X and Microvascular Angina. In: Kaski JC, Eslick GD, Bairey Merz CN, editors. Chest Pain with Normal Coronary Arteries: A Multidisciplinary Approach, London: Springer; 2013, p. 37–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Research in Microbiology.

Blog post
Hale T. Zika Virus Hits Singapore With At Least 56 Locally Transmitted Cases. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Improvements Recommended for Better Oversight of the Capitol Page School. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeReus DL. The correlation between career anchors and satisfaction - a comparative analysis of multiple affiliations under a single organizational structure. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E. Neediest Cases Assists With a Christmas Tree. New York Times 1993:134.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleResearch in Microbiology
AbbreviationRes. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0923-2508
ScopeMolecular Biology
General Medicine

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