How to format your references using the Studies in Comparative International Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Studies in Comparative International Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holden C. Long hours aside, respondents say jobs offer “as much fun as you can have.” Science. 2004 Jun 18;304(5678):1830–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ketting RF, Plasterk RH. A genetic link between co-suppression and RNA interference in C. elegans. Nature. 2000 Mar 16;404(6775):296–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Saitta EKH, Legron-Rodriguez T, Bowdon MA. IBI* series winner. An inquiry into the water around us. Science. 2013 Aug 30;341(6149):971–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Xu H, Xia Y, Yin K, Lu J, Yin Q, Yin J, et al. The chemically driven phase transformation in a memristive abacus capable of calculating decimal fractions. Sci. Rep. 2013 Feb 6;3:1230.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cooney N. How to Be Great at Doing Good. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Cavallucci D, Guio R de, Cascini G, editors. Building Innovation Pipelines through Computer-Aided Innovation: 4th IFIP WG 5.4 Working Conference, CAI 2011, Strasbourg, France, June 30 – July 1, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Baier C, Bertrand N, Bouyer P, Brihaye T. When Are Timed Automata Determinizable? In: Albers S, Marchetti-Spaccamela A, Matias Y, Nikoletseas S, Thomas W, editors. Automata, Languages and Programming: 36th Internatilonal Collogquium, ICALP 2009, Rhodes, greece, July 5-12, 2009, Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 43–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Studies in Comparative International Development.

Blog post
Fang J. World’s Fastest Camera Takes 4.4 TRILLION Frames Per Second. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Food and Drug Administration’s Investigation of Defective Cardiac Pacemakers Recalled by the General Electric Company. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975 Mar. Report No.: MWD-75-71.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Satterlee RT. A case study of undergraduate student employment at a private university: Exploring the effects of social class and institutional context [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. New Charter School Will Be Island’s 4th. New York Times. 2008 Oct 12;LI1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Holden 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Holden 2004; Ketting and Plasterk 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ketting and Plasterk 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Xu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleStudies in Comparative International Development
AbbreviationStud. Comp. Int. Dev.
ISSN (print)0039-3606
ISSN (online)1936-6167
Sociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles