How to format your references using the Studies in Comparative International Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Studies in Comparative International Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Covington M. Applied physics. A ringing confirmation of spintronics theory. Science. 2005 Jan 14;307(5707):215–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
King M-C, Motulsky AG. Human genetics. Mapping human history. Science. 2002 Dec 20;298(5602):2342–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Constância M, Kelsey G, Reik W. Resourceful imprinting. Nature. 2004 Nov 4;432(7013):53–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Huang T, Gao B, Hu X-K, Lu X, Well R, Christie P, et al. Ammonia-oxidation as an engine to generate nitrous oxide in an intensively managed calcareous fluvo-aquic soil. Sci. Rep. 2014 Feb 4;4:3950.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Molimard J. Experimental Mechanics of Solids and Structures. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Herzog E, Chaudhry F, editors. Echocardiography in Acute Coronary Syndrome: Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention. London: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Costa JF. Computable Scientists, Uncomputable World. In: Calude CS, Hagiya M, Morita K, Rozenberg G, Timmis J, editors. Unconventional Computation: 9th International Conference, US 2010, Tokyo, Japan, June 21-25, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 6–10.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Studies in Comparative International Development.

Blog post
Andrew D. Sloths Aren’t Lazy – Their Slowness Is A Survival Skill [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Geostationary Weather Satellites: Design Progress Made, but Schedule Uncertainty Needs to be Addressed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012 Jun. Report No.: GAO-12-576.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Whittle CM. The genomic distribution and function of NFI and histone variant H2A.Z during Caenorhabditis elegans development [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Popper N. Muni Rates Examined For Signs Of Rigging. New York Times. 2012 Jul 31;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Covington 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Covington 2005; King and Motulsky 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (King and Motulsky 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Huang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleStudies in Comparative International Development
AbbreviationStud. Comp. Int. Dev.
ISSN (print)0039-3606
ISSN (online)1936-6167
Sociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles