How to format your references using the Studies in Comparative International Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Studies in Comparative International Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Springer TA. Immunology. Retrospective: César Milstein (1927-2002). Science. 2002 May 17;296(5571):1253.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wickens M, Gonzalez TN. Molecular biology. Knives, accomplices, and RNA. Science. 2004 Nov 19;306(5700):1299–300.
A journal article with 3 authors
Haas J, Creamer W, Ruiz A. Dating the Late Archaic occupation of the Norte Chico region in Peru. Nature. 2004 Dec 23;432(7020):1020–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Park J-Y, Su Y-Q, Ariga M, Law E, Jin S-LC, Conti M. EGF-like growth factors as mediators of LH action in the ovulatory follicle. Science. 2004 Jan 30;303(5658):682–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bisen PS, Debnath M, Prasad GBKS. Microbes. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Priami C, Back R-J, Petre I, Vink E de, editors. Transactions on Computational Systems Biology XIII. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Tarr JE, Soria V. Challenges in Conducting Large-Scale Studies of Curricular Effectiveness: Data Collection and Analyses in the COSMIC Project. In: Middleton JA, Cai J, Hwang S, editors. Large-Scale Studies in Mathematics Education. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 75–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Studies in Comparative International Development.

Blog post
Carpineti A. This Water-Powered CubeSat Might Be Sent To The Moon [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Interagency Laboratory Use: Current Practices and Recurring Problems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979 Sep. Report No.: PSAD-79-97.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Desgens-Martin V. High prevalence of carcinoma in California sea lions Zalophus californianus: Evidence of a xenobiotic-induced carcinogenic cascade? [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz J. At Exxon, Nominee Steered Company’s ‘Evolution’ on Climate. New York Times. 2016 Dec 29;A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Springer 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Springer 2002; Wickens and Gonzalez 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wickens and Gonzalez 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Park et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleStudies in Comparative International Development
AbbreviationStud. Comp. Int. Dev.
ISSN (print)0039-3606
ISSN (online)1936-6167
Sociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles