How to format your references using the Studies in Comparative International Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Studies in Comparative International Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Winful HG. Optics (communication arising): mechanism for “superluminal” tunnelling. Nature. 2003 Aug 7;424(6949):638; discussion 638.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burgisser A, Scaillet B. Redox evolution of a degassing magma rising to the surface. Nature. 2007 Jan 11;445(7124):194–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Masle J, Gilmore SR, Farquhar GD. The ERECTA gene regulates plant transpiration efficiency in Arabidopsis. Nature. 2005 Aug 11;436(7052):866–70.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yaveroğlu ÖN, Malod-Dognin N, Davis D, Levnajic Z, Janjic V, Karapandza R, et al. Revealing the hidden language of complex networks. Sci. Rep. 2014 Apr 1;4:4547.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ahmad SR, Cartwright M. Laser Ignition of Energetic Materials. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Cheng W. Residual Stress Measurement and the Slitting Method. Finnie I, editor. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen Z-S, Hseu Z-Y, Tsai C-C. Andisols. In: Hseu Z-Y, Tsai C-C, editors. The Soils of Taiwan. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. p. 35–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Studies in Comparative International Development.

Blog post
Andrew E. Lessons From Cuba on Eliminating the Transmission of HIV From Mother to Child. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Congressional Oversight: Reality and Reform. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980 Oct. Report No.: 113595.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Capelli AM. The (Un)Balanced Canon: Re-Visioning Feminist Conceptions of Madness and Transgression [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. A Great TV Series Set in Texas? Sorry, You’re Canceled. New York Times. 2011 Jan 23;A29B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Winful 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Burgisser and Scaillet 2007; Winful 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Burgisser and Scaillet 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Yaveroğlu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleStudies in Comparative International Development
AbbreviationStud. Comp. Int. Dev.
ISSN (print)0039-3606
ISSN (online)1936-6167
Sociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles