How to format your references using the Studies in Comparative International Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Studies in Comparative International Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heuser J. Retrospective. “My little spontaneous blips.” Science. 2003 May 23;300(5623):1248.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jacoby CA, Frazer TK. Eutrophication: time to adjust expectations. Science. 2009 May 8;324(5928):723–4; author reply 724-5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gavazzi G, Bisio A, Pozzo T. Time perception of visual motion is tuned by the motor representation of human actions. Sci. Rep. 2013 Jan 30;3:1168.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yu Y, Jiang S, Zhou W, Miao X, Zeng Y, Zhang G, et al. Room temperature rubbing for few-layer two-dimensional thin flakes directly on flexible polymer substrates. Sci. Rep. 2013;3:2697.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mackenzie B, Njikizana T, Coetsee D, Chamboko R, Colyvas B, Hanekom B, et al. 2014 Interpretation and Application of International Financial Reporting Standards. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2014.
An edited book
Pye K. Aeolian Sand and Sand Dunes. Tsoar H, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Jamieson AM, Farlik M, Decker T. How Stats Interact with the Molecular Machinery of Transcriptional Activation. In: Decker T, Müller M, editors. Jak-Stat Signaling : From Basics to Disease. Vienna: Springer; 2012. p. 65–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Studies in Comparative International Development.

Blog post
Andrew E. WHO Approves 15-Minute Ebola Test. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Computer-Based Patient Records: Subcommittee Questions Concerning VA and DOD Efforts to Achieve a Two-Way Exchange of Health Data. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004 May. Report No.: GAO-04-691R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wang B. An Embedded Method for Near-Wellbore Streamline Simulation [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly J. A Girl Wants to Know. New York Times. 2015 Oct 11;BR18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Heuser 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Heuser 2003; Jacoby and Frazer 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jacoby and Frazer 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Yu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleStudies in Comparative International Development
AbbreviationStud. Comp. Int. Dev.
ISSN (print)0039-3606
ISSN (online)1936-6167
Sociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles