How to format your references using the Structural Change and Economic Dynamics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Structural Change and Economic Dynamics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benner, S.A., 2011. Comment on “A bacterium that can grow by using arsenic instead of phosphorus.” Science 332, 1149; author reply 1149.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mel’nikov, A.S., Vinokur, V.M., 2002. Mesoscopic superconductor as a ballistic quantum switch. Nature 415, 60–62.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bruner, S.D., Norman, D.P., Verdine, G.L., 2000. Structural basis for recognition and repair of the endogenous mutagen 8-oxoguanine in DNA. Nature 403, 859–866.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
El-Atwani, O., Hinks, J.A., Greaves, G., Gonderman, S., Qiu, T., Efe, M., Allain, J.P., 2014. In-situ TEM observation of the response of ultrafine- and nanocrystalline-grained tungsten to extreme irradiation environments. Sci. Rep. 4, 4716.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chan, E.P., 2013. Algorithmic Trading. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Stolfo, S.J., Bellovin, S.M., Keromytis, A.D., Hershkop, S., Smith, S.W., Sinclair, S. (Eds.), 2008. Insider Attack and Cyber Security: Beyond the Hacker, Advances in Information Security. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Scherer, G.G., 2013. Fuel Cell Types and Their Electrochemistry, in: Kreuer, K.-D. (Ed.), Fuel Cells: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 97–119.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Structural Change and Economic Dynamics.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2017. Here’s A Glorious List Of All The Animals Known To Fart [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008. Aviation Weather: Services at Key Aviation Facilities Lack Performance Measures, but Improvement Efforts Are Under Way (No. GAO-08-491T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yates, S.L., 2010. Asian Indian women with gestational diabetes improving care for mothers and babies “Dals, Dosas and me” (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K., 2001. Sealed Since ’88, A Condo Garage May Soon See Some Daylight. New York Times 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Benner, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Benner, 2011; Mel’nikov and Vinokur, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mel’nikov and Vinokur, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (El-Atwani et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleStructural Change and Economic Dynamics
AbbreviationStruct. Chang. Econ. Dyn.
ISSN (print)0954-349X
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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