How to format your references using the Structural Change and Economic Dynamics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Structural Change and Economic Dynamics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Livio, M., 2011. Lost in translation: Mystery of the missing text solved. Nature 479, 171–173.
A journal article with 2 authors
Friedman, A., Perrimon, N., 2006. A functional RNAi screen for regulators of receptor tyrosine kinase and ERK signalling. Nature 444, 230–234.
A journal article with 3 authors
Carpenter, S.J., Erickson, J.M., Holland, F.D., Jr, 2003. Migration of a Late Cretaceous fish. Nature 423, 70–74.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fomenko, D.E., Xing, W., Adair, B.M., Thomas, D.J., Gladyshev, V.N., 2007. High-throughput identification of catalytic redox-active cysteine residues. Science 315, 387–389.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bécherrawy, T., 2012. Electromagnetism. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Bull, L., Bernadó-Mansilla, E., Holmes, J. (Eds.), 2008. Learning Classifier Systems in Data Mining, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Song, L., Hu, L., 2013. Differential Fault Attack on the PRINCE Block Cipher, in: Avoine, G., Kara, O. (Eds.), Lightweight Cryptography for Security and Privacy: Second International Workshop, LightSec 2013, Gebze, Turkey, May 6-7, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 43–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Structural Change and Economic Dynamics.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Island Lizards Digest More Efficiently Than Their Mainland Counterparts [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996. Satellite Control Capabilities: National Policy Could Help Consolidation and Cost Savings (No. NSIAD-96-77). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Momcheva, I.G., 2009. Environments of strong gravitational lenses (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2007. Justices Reject Suit on Federal Money for Faith-Based Office. New York Times A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Livio, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Friedman and Perrimon, 2006; Livio, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Friedman and Perrimon, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Fomenko et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleStructural Change and Economic Dynamics
AbbreviationStruct. Chang. Econ. Dyn.
ISSN (print)0954-349X
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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