How to format your references using the Structural Change and Economic Dynamics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Structural Change and Economic Dynamics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DeWeerdt, S., 2015. The beeline. Nature 521, S50-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Parkes, D.C., Wellman, M.P., 2015. Economic reasoning and artificial intelligence. Science 349, 267–272.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bo, T.-L., Zhang, H., Zheng, X.-J., 2014. Charge-to-mass ratio of saltating particles in wind-blown sand. Sci. Rep. 4, 5590.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Massé, K., Bhamra, S., Eason, R., Dale, N., Jones, E.A., 2007. Purine-mediated signalling triggers eye development. Nature 449, 1058–1062.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Källén, A., 2011. Understanding Biostatistics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Shaker, R., Belafsky, P.C., Postma, G.N., Easterling, C. (Eds.), 2013. Principles of Deglutition: A Multidisciplinary Text for Swallowing and its Disorders. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Olson, D.L., Wu, D., 2010. Enterprise Risk Management in Projects, in: Wu, D. (Ed.), Enterprise Risk Management Models. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 43–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Structural Change and Economic Dynamics.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2015. Abuse Of Carbon Credit Scheme Might Have Increased Carbon Emissions By 600 Million Tonnes [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2002. Marine Transportation: Federal Financing and an Infrastructure Investment Framework (No. GAO-02-1090T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ploehs, J.R., 2009. The literacy benefits of middle school tutors who tutor emergent readers (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2006. 2 Justices Indicate Supreme Court Is Unlikely to Televise Sessions. New York Times A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (DeWeerdt, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (DeWeerdt, 2015; Parkes and Wellman, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Parkes and Wellman, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Massé et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleStructural Change and Economic Dynamics
AbbreviationStruct. Chang. Econ. Dyn.
ISSN (print)0954-349X
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

Other styles