How to format your references using the Structural Change and Economic Dynamics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Structural Change and Economic Dynamics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Warrington, B., 2012. Physics. Two atomic clocks ticking as one. Science 336, 421–422.
A journal article with 2 authors
Trumbore, S.E., Czimczik, C.I., 2008. Geology. An uncertain future for soil carbon. Science 321, 1455–1456.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pawloski, J.R., Hess, D.T., Stamler, J.S., 2001. Export by red blood cells of nitric oxide bioactivity. Nature 409, 622–626.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Palmre, V., Pugal, D., Kim, K.J., Leang, K.K., Asaka, K., Aabloo, A., 2014. Nanothorn electrodes for ionic polymer-metal composite artificial muscles. Sci. Rep. 4, 6176.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Imrie, R., Street, E., 2011. Architectural Design and Regulation. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Urias, D.A. (Ed.), 2012. The Immigration & Education Nexus: A Focus on the Context & Consequences of Schooling, Comparative and International Education, A Diversity of Voices. SensePublishers, Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Richards, H., 2013. Influence and Incentives in Financial Institution Supervision, in: Kellermann, A.J., de Haan, J., de Vries, F. (Eds.), Financial Supervision in the 21st Century. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 73–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Structural Change and Economic Dynamics.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Deepest Sign of Life Ever Detected [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1981. Coordinating and Linking Programs Directed Toward Increasing the Numbers of Minority and Disadvantaged Individuals in the Health Professions (No. HRD-81-87). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wolodkowicz, R., 2008. Leadership qualities and employee-student future intentions (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K., 2009. Classic Fare, Modern Chocolate. New York Times NJ10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Warrington, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Trumbore and Czimczik, 2008; Warrington, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Trumbore and Czimczik, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Palmre et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleStructural Change and Economic Dynamics
AbbreviationStruct. Chang. Econ. Dyn.
ISSN (print)0954-349X
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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