How to format your references using the Fluids citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fluids. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wadhwa, M. Redox State of Mars’ Upper Mantle and Crust from Eu Anomalies in Shergottite Pyroxenes. Science 2001, 291, 1527–1530.
A journal article with 2 authors
Warren, L.A.; Kauffman, M.E. Geoscience. Microbial Geoengineers. Science 2003, 299, 1027–1029.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gu, Y.; Lee, W.; Shen, J. Site-2 Protease Responds to Oxidative Stress and Regulates Oxidative Injury in Mammalian Cells. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6268.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, D.; Zhu, Y.; Wang, H.; Ding, Y. Nanoporous Gold as an Active Low Temperature Catalyst toward CO Oxidation in Hydrogen-Rich Stream. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3015.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Geren, R.L. Applying the Building Code; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2016; ISBN 9781119149705.
An edited book
Perspectives on Language and Language Development: Essays in Honor of Ruth A. Berman; Ravid, D.D., Shyldkrot, H.B.-Z., Eds.; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2005; ISBN 9781402079030.
A chapter in an edited book
Taher, H.; Al-Zuhair, S.; Al-Marzouqi, A.; Haik, Y.; Farid, M. Effectiveness of Enzymatic Biodiesel Production from Microalga Oil in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. In ICREGA’14 - Renewable Energy: Generation and Applications; Hamdan, M.O., Hejase, H.A.N., Noura, H.M., Fardoun, A.A., Eds.; Springer Proceedings in Energy; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; pp. 49–57 ISBN 9783319057071.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fluids.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. Chameleon Supernova Hints At A Different Kind Of Stellar Explosion Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Aviation Security: FAA Can Help Ensure That Airports’ Access Control Systems Are Cost-Effective; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1995;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson, E. Predicting Home Purchase Location in DC: An Intersectional Approach. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. After Defeat, Islip Republicans Scramble to Find an Entry. New York Times 2007, LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFluids
ISSN (online)2311-5521

Other styles