How to format your references using the Fluids citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fluids. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ohlemüller, R. Climate. Running out of Climate Space. Science 2011, 334, 613–614.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lodish, H.; Fedoroff, N. Retrospective. Norton Zinder (1928-2012). Science 2012, 335, 1316.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shevenell, A.E.; Kennett, J.P.; Lea, D.W. Middle Miocene Southern Ocean Cooling and Antarctic Cryosphere Expansion. Science 2004, 305, 1766–1770.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Isomura, N.; Yamauchi, C.; Takeuchi, Y.; Takemura, A. Does Dopamine Block the Spawning of the Acroporid Coral Acropora Tenuis? Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2649.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scheller-Sheridan, C. Basic Guide to Dental Instruments; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.: West Sussex, UK, 2011; ISBN 9781118713563.
An edited book
Darwin-Inspired Learning; Boulter, C.J., Reiss, M.J., Sanders, D.L., Eds.; New Directions in Mathematics and Science Education; SensePublishers: Rotterdam, 2015; ISBN 9789462098336.
A chapter in an edited book
Pratt-Hartmann, I. The Two-Variable Fragment with Counting Revisited. In Logic, Language, Information and Computation: 17th International Workshop, WoLLIC 2010, Brasilia, Brazil, July 6-9, 2010. Proceedings; Dawar, A., Queiroz, R. de, Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; pp. 42–54 ISBN 9783642138232.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fluids.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Scientists Work Out Richard III’s Diet Using Teeth And Bone Chemistry Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Earth Observing System: NASA Needs to Reassess Its EOSDIS Development Strategy; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1992;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Whitesides, V.J. The Large Ensemble/European Classical Music Paradigm and African American-Originated Dance-Musicking: A Dispositival Analysis of U.S. Secondary Music Education. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mann, M. The Other Side of Boredom. New York Times 2015, SR6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFluids
ISSN (online)2311-5521

Other styles