How to format your references using the Fluids citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fluids. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hagmann, M. PUBLIC HEALTH: Deaths Among Heroin Users Present a Puzzle. Science 2000, 288, 1941a.
A journal article with 2 authors
Graf, T.; Enver, T. Forcing cells to change lineages. Nature 2009, 462, 587–594.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hayashi, K.; Yoshida, K.; Matsui, Y. A histone H3 methyltransferase controls epigenetic events required for meiotic prophase. Nature 2005, 438, 374–378.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Walker, D.W.; McColl, G.; Jenkins, N.L.; Harris, J.; Lithgow, G.J. Evolution of lifespan in C. elegans. Nature 2000, 405, 296–297.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McAulay, A.D. Military Laser Technology for Defense; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118019559.
An edited book
Inductive Logic Programming: 15th International Conference, ILP 2005, Bonn, Germany, August 10-13, 2005. Proceedings; Kramer, S., Pfahringer, B., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005; Vol. 3625; ISBN 9783540281771.
A chapter in an edited book
Hansen, A.; Hees, F.; Richert, A. Kreativität mit System – Innovationsmanagement strategisch umsetzen. In Automation, Communication and Cybernetics in Science and Engineering 2013/2014; Jeschke, S., Isenhardt, I., Hees, F., Henning, K., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; pp. 45–50 ISBN 9783319088150.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fluids.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Has The Hole in Stephen Hawking’s Black Hole Theory Been Plugged? Available online:’s-black-hole-theory-been-plugged/ (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Federal Motor Vehicles: Agencies’ Progress in Meeting Expenditure Control Requirements; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1988;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shamsai, M. Prefabricated Cage System for Reinforcing Concrete Members. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University: Columbus, OH, 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W.; Goodnough, A. Edging Toward Default. New York Times 2011, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFluids
ISSN (online)2311-5521

Other styles