How to format your references using the Fluids citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fluids. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Check, E. Patenting the Obvious? Nature 2007, 447, 16–17.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hardy, J.; Selkoe, D.J. The Amyloid Hypothesis of Alzheimer’s Disease: Progress and Problems on the Road to Therapeutics. Science 2002, 297, 353–356.
A journal article with 3 authors
Heiling, A.M.; Herberstein, M.E.; Chittka, L. Pollinator Attraction: Crab-Spiders Manipulate Flower Signals. Nature 2003, 421, 334.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Noguera-Troise, I.; Daly, C.; Papadopoulos, N.J.; Coetzee, S.; Boland, P.; Gale, N.W.; Lin, H.C.; Yancopoulos, G.D.; Thurston, G. Blockade of Dll4 Inhibits Tumour Growth by Promoting Non-Productive Angiogenesis. Nature 2006, 444, 1032–1037.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blackford, R. Freedom of Religion and the Secular State; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2012; ISBN 9781118153321.
An edited book
Seherr-Thoss, H.C. Universal Joints and Driveshafts: Analysis, Design, Applications; Schmelz, F., Aucktor, E., Eds.; 2nd edition.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006; ISBN 9783540301691.
A chapter in an edited book
Kim, R.; Albert, L.R. Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics Category I: Mathematics Curriculum Knowledge. In Mathematics Teaching and Learning: South Korean Elementary Teachers’ Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching; Albert, L.R., Ed.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 63–76 ISBN 9783319135410.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fluids.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Microbes: The Tiny Sentinels That Can Help Us Diagnose Sick Oceans Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Food Assistance: Schools That Left the National School Lunch Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tabellario, C.M. A Plan to Establish a Financial Counseling Center on the Campus of California State University, Long Beach. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Harris, E.A. Walking Away, Quietly. New York Times 2014, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFluids
ISSN (online)2311-5521

Other styles