How to format your references using the Fluids citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fluids. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fanelli, D. Redefine misconduct as distorted reporting. Nature 2013, 494, 149.
A journal article with 2 authors
Phan, R.T.; Dalla-Favera, R. The BCL6 proto-oncogene suppresses p53 expression in germinal-centre B cells. Nature 2004, 432, 635–639.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ogawa, Y.; Sun, B.K.; Lee, J.T. Intersection of the RNA interference and X-inactivation pathways. Science 2008, 320, 1336–1341.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Emerson, J.J.; Cardoso-Moreira, M.; Borevitz, J.O.; Long, M. Natural selection shapes genome-wide patterns of copy-number polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster. Science 2008, 320, 1629–1631.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Biswas, S.; Ray, P.; Chakrabarti, B.K. Statistical Physics of Fracture, Breakdown, and Earthquake; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2015; ISBN 9783527672646.
An edited book
Terahertz and Mid Infrared Radiation: Generation, Detection and Applications; Pereira, M.F., Shulika, O., Eds.; NATO Science for Peace and Security Series B: Physics and Biophysics; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2011; ISBN 9789400707689.
A chapter in an edited book
Miclaus, G.D.; Ples, H. Coronary Angiography. In Atlas of CT Angiography: Normal and Pathologic Findings; Ples, H., Ed.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; pp. 85–129 ISBN 9783319052830.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fluids.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Rare and Deadly, Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Remains a Bit of a Medical Mystery Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Taxpayer Information: Data Sharing and Analysis May Enhance Tax Compliance and Improve Immigration Eligibility Decisions; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2004;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Katz, R.L. Graduate nursing students’ perceptions regarding caring for patients with HIV. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M.M. Kushner Friend Steps Down as Editor of the Observer. New York Times 2017, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFluids
ISSN (online)2311-5521

Other styles