How to format your references using the Fluids citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fluids. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Coughlin, S.R. Thrombin Signalling and Protease-Activated Receptors. Nature 2000, 407, 258–264.
A journal article with 2 authors
Falkowski, P.G.; de Vargas, C. Genomics and Evolution. Shotgun Sequencing in the Sea: A Blast from the Past? Science 2004, 304, 58–60.
A journal article with 3 authors
Montague, P.R.; Hyman, S.E.; Cohen, J.D. Computational Roles for Dopamine in Behavioural Control. Nature 2004, 431, 760–767.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Agrawal, N.; Sachdev, B.; Rodrigues, J.; Sree, K.S.; Bhatnagar, R.K. Development Associated Profiling of Chitinase and MicroRNA of Helicoverpa Armigera Identified Chitinase Repressive MicroRNA. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2292.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Waye, J.D.; Aisenberg, J.; Rubin, P.H. Practical Colonoscopy; Blackwell Publishing Ltd.: Oxford, UK, 2013; ISBN 9781118553442.
An edited book
Secure Data Management: Third VLDB Workshop, SDM 2006, Seoul, Korea, September 10-11, 2006. Proceedings; Jonker, W., Petković, M., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006; Vol. 4165; ISBN 9783540389842.
A chapter in an edited book
Alsaileek, A.A.; Tajik, J.A. Principles of Hemodynamic Assessment. In Echocardiography; Nihoyannopoulos, P., Kisslo, J., Eds.; Springer: London, 2009; pp. 63–78 ISBN 9781848822924.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fluids.

Blog post
Davis, J. Letter Penned By Charles Darwin Returned To The Smithsonian, 30 Years After It Was Stolen (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Small Businesses and Innovation, Small Business Research Conference; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1981;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stoecker, K. Transfer of Topic-Prominence in Chinese-English Interlanguage. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University: Edwardsville, IL, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M.M. Washington Reality Show Stripped of Its Protagonist. New York Times 2017, A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFluids
ISSN (online)2311-5521

Other styles