How to format your references using the Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Westervelt RM (2008) Applied physics. Graphene nanoelectronics. Science 320:324–325
A journal article with 2 authors
Santos ME, Salzburger W (2012) Evolution. How cichlids diversify. Science 338:619–621
A journal article with 3 authors
Nakamura K, Takahashi Y, Fujiwara T (2014) Low-temperature excess heat capacity in fresnoite glass and crystal. Sci Rep 4:6523
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ko Y-H, Song J, Leung B, et al (2014) Multi-color broadband visible light source via GaN hexagonal annular structure. Sci Rep 4:5514

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Numai T (2010) Laser Diodes and their Applications to Communications and Information Processing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Lee J, Ni J, Sarangapani J, Mathew J (eds) (2014) Engineering Asset Management 2011: Proceedings of the Sixth World Congress on Engineering Asset Management. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Gronau H-D, Langmann H-H, Schleicher D (2011) Participants. In: Gronau H-D, Langmann H-H, Schleicher D (eds) 50th IMO - 50 Years of International Mathematical Olympiads. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 47–100

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Slave Ants And Their Masters Are Locked In A Deadly Relationship. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) Army Airlift: Need To Use Air Lines of Communications for Essential Items. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Odom SA (2017) Electronic health records: Overcoming obstacles to improve acceptance and utilization for mental health clinicians. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2017) Battered Mets Survive the Nationals. New York Times D3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Westervelt 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Westervelt 2008; Santos and Salzburger 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Santos and Salzburger 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Ko et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleStructural and Multidisciplinary Optimization
AbbreviationStruct. Multidiscipl. Optim.
ISSN (print)1615-147X
ISSN (online)1615-1488
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Computer Science Applications
Control and Systems Engineering
Control and Optimization

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