How to format your references using the Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ross FM (2015) Opportunities and challenges in liquid cell electron microscopy. Science 350:aaa9886
A journal article with 2 authors
Barnes MJ, Powrie F (2011) Immunology. The gut’s Clostridium cocktail. Science 331:289–290
A journal article with 3 authors
Yu DYW, Hoster HE, Batabyal SK (2014) Bulk antimony sulfide with excellent cycle stability as next-generation anode for lithium-ion batteries. Sci Rep 4:4562
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Strohmaier H, Spruck CH, Kaiser P, et al (2001) Human F-box protein hCdc4 targets cyclin E for proteolysis and is mutated in a breast cancer cell line. Nature 413:316–322

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Samuels J (2015) The Trader’s Pendulum. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
McCarty LB (2016) Applied Soil Physical Properties, Drainage, and Irrigation Strategies. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Clavier H, Nolan SP (2010) Building Indenylidene–Ruthenium Catalysts for Metathesis Transformations. In: Dragutan V, Demonceau A, Dragutan I, Finkelshtein ES (eds) Green Metathesis Chemistry. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 39–47

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2015) NASA Forced To Hand $490 Million To Russia For Flights To The ISS And Their Chief Is Pissed. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1971) Charges for Launch Support Services Furnished by the Air Force to the Communications Satellite Corporation (Comsat). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Buquiran ES (2014) Factors affecting members’ retention in Toastmasters International. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Corkery M (2017) In Rare Move, Google Imposes New Limits on Addiction Treatment Ads. New York Times B5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ross 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Barnes and Powrie 2011; Ross 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Barnes and Powrie 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Strohmaier et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleStructural and Multidisciplinary Optimization
AbbreviationStruct. Multidiscipl. Optim.
ISSN (print)1615-147X
ISSN (online)1615-1488
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Computer Science Applications
Control and Systems Engineering
Control and Optimization

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