How to format your references using the Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sarewitz D (2012) Blue-sky bias should be brought down to Earth. Nature 481:7
A journal article with 2 authors
Tinel A, Tschopp J (2004) The PIDDosome, a protein complex implicated in activation of caspase-2 in response to genotoxic stress. Science 304:843–846
A journal article with 3 authors
Chávez AE, Singer JH, Diamond JS (2006) Fast neurotransmitter release triggered by Ca influx through AMPA-type glutamate receptors. Nature 443:705–708
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Jansen R, Yu H, Greenbaum D, et al (2003) A Bayesian networks approach for predicting protein-protein interactions from genomic data. Science 302:449–453

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Berto F (2009) There’s Something about Gödel. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Lone SH (2015) Chemical and Pharmacological Perspective of Artemisia amygdalina. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Barbuti PA (2014) Stem Cell Therapy for Neurological Disorders: From Bench to Bedside. In: Somasundaram I (ed) Stem Cell Therapy for Organ Failure. Springer India, New Delhi, pp 41–70

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Physicists Prove ‘Quantum Spookiness’ And Start Chasing Schrödinger’s Cat. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2002) Space Surveillance Network: Appropriate Controls Needed Over Data Access. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bremond DS (2017) When women win: Prominent leadership traits that contributed to the successful election of women in California. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly DA (2010) When in Doubt, Insure. New York Times TR3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sarewitz 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Tinel and Tschopp 2004; Sarewitz 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tinel and Tschopp 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Jansen et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleStructural and Multidisciplinary Optimization
AbbreviationStruct. Multidiscipl. Optim.
ISSN (print)1615-147X
ISSN (online)1615-1488
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Computer Science Applications
Software
Control and Systems Engineering
Control and Optimization

Other styles