How to format your references using the Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jayaraman KS (2002) Syngenta ready to drop plans for Indian rice venture. Nature 420:596
A journal article with 2 authors
Keightley PD, Otto SP (2006) Interference among deleterious mutations favours sex and recombination in finite populations. Nature 443:89–92
A journal article with 3 authors
Gutiérrez NL, Hilborn R, Defeo O (2011) Leadership, social capital and incentives promote successful fisheries. Nature 470:386–389
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Baba H, Aziz F, Kaifu Y, et al (2003) Homo erectus calvarium from the Pleistocene of Java. Science 299:1384–1388

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brunet R (2013) Sustainable Geography. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Tiwari R (2014) Aiming Big with Small Cars: Emergence of a Lead Market in India. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Cumming JJ, Van der Kleij FM (2016) Effective Enactment of Assessment for Learning and Student Diversity in Australia. In: Laveault D, Allal L (eds) Assessment for Learning: Meeting the Challenge of Implementation. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 55–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Math And Reading Abilities Driven By Same Genes. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Truck Safety: The Safety of Longer Combination Vehicles Is Unknown. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sampson R (2010) The effects of foster care on children: A comparison of 18th century through modern day foster care practices. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B (2016) Hip Injury Forces Kyrgios to Withdraw; Journeyman Challenges Murray. New York Times SP8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jayaraman 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Jayaraman 2002; Keightley and Otto 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Keightley and Otto 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Baba et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleStructural and Multidisciplinary Optimization
AbbreviationStruct. Multidiscipl. Optim.
ISSN (print)1615-147X
ISSN (online)1615-1488
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Computer Science Applications
Control and Systems Engineering
Control and Optimization

Other styles