How to format your references using the Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pollard TD (2011) Cell biology. Formin tip tracking. Science 331:39–41
A journal article with 2 authors
Dobbelaere J, Barral Y (2004) Spatial coordination of cytokinetic events by compartmentalization of the cell cortex. Science 305:393–396
A journal article with 3 authors
Trautt ZT, Upmanyu M, Karma A (2006) Interface mobility from interface random walk. Science 314:632–635
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Anderlini M, Lee PJ, Brown BL, et al (2007) Controlled exchange interaction between pairs of neutral atoms in an optical lattice. Nature 448:452–456

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ferguson N, Schneier B, Kohno T (2015) Cryptography Engineering. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana
An edited book
Rajakaruna S, Shahnia F, Ghosh A (eds) (2015) Plug In Electric Vehicles in Smart Grids: Integration Techniques. Springer, Singapore
A chapter in an edited book
Kaski P, Östergård PRJ (2006) Isomorph-Free Exhaustive Generation. In: Östergård PRJ (ed) Classification Algorithms for Codes and Designs. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 105–143

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) We Get Carsick Because Of A Weird Evolutionary Blip. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000) Federal Railroad Administration: Railroad Rehabilitation and Improvement Financing Program--Revisions. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Becker LA (2010) Noncredit to credit transitions: The role of cultural capital and habitus for adult immigrant learners in the community college. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barnes B, Buckley C (2017) ‘La La Land’ Dominates With Record Wins. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pollard 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Dobbelaere and Barral 2004; Pollard 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dobbelaere and Barral 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Anderlini et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleStructural and Multidisciplinary Optimization
AbbreviationStruct. Multidiscipl. Optim.
ISSN (print)1615-147X
ISSN (online)1615-1488
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Computer Science Applications
Control and Systems Engineering
Control and Optimization

Other styles