How to format your references using the Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sapolsky RM (2005) The influence of social hierarchy on primate health. Science 308:648–652
A journal article with 2 authors
Watrin E, Peters J-M (2007) Molecular biology. How and when the genome sticks together. Science 317:209–210
A journal article with 3 authors
Choudhary A, Kohar V, Sinha S (2014) Taming explosive growth through dynamic random links. Sci Rep 4:4308
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Roy R, Kozlov AG, Lohman TM, Ha T (2009) SSB protein diffusion on single-stranded DNA stimulates RecA filament formation. Nature 461:1092–1097

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lindahl D (2007) Emerging Real Estate Markets. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Daradoumis T, Caballé S, Marquès JM, Xhafa F (eds) (2009) Intelligent Collaborative e-Learning Systems and Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Al-Salman R, Dylla F, Frommberger L (2013) An Approach to Qualitative Emergency Management. In: Zlatanova S, Peters R, Dilo A, Scholten H (eds) Intelligent Systems for Crisis Management: Geo-information for Disaster Management (Gi4DM) 2012. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 43–50

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Six Lessons From The Initial Failed International Response To Ebola. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Test and Evaluation: DOD’s Fiscal Year 1989 Test Resource Budget. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pigott C (2016) School Resource Officers and the School-to-Prison Pipeline: Discovering Trends of Expulsions in Public Schools. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fausset R (2017) After Proudly Defying Washington, Hard-Hit Texas Needs Its Aid. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sapolsky 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Sapolsky 2005; Watrin and Peters 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Watrin and Peters 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Roy et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleStochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment
AbbreviationStoch. Environ. Res. Risk Assess.
ISSN (print)1436-3240
ISSN (online)1436-3259
ScopeSafety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
General Environmental Science
Environmental Chemistry
Environmental Engineering
Water Science and Technology

Other styles