# How to format your references using the BMC Veterinary Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Veterinary Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

## Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

## Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Long SR. Symbiosis: Receptive to infection. Nature. 2015;523:298–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Trauger JT, Traub WA. A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet. Nature. 2007;446:771–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Allen M, Raper S, Mitchell J. Climate change. Uncertainty in the IPCC’s Third Assessment Report. Science. 2001;293:430–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Xie X, Zhou Y, Bi H, Yin K, Wan S, Sun L. Large-range control of the microstructures and properties of three-dimensional porous graphene. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2117.

## Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bahgat G. Energy Security. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
1. Mandal JK, Satapathy SC, Kumar Sanyal M, Sarkar PP, Mukhopadhyay A, editors. Information Systems Design and Intelligent Applications: Proceedings of Second International Conference INDIA 2015, Volume 1. New Delhi: Springer India; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Hu J, Wang Z, Gao H. Probability-Guaranteed $$H_\infty$$ H ∞ Finite-Horizon Filtering with Sensor Saturations. In: Wang Z, Gao H, editors. Nonlinear Stochastic Systems with Network-Induced Phenomena: Recursive Filtering and Sliding-Mode Design. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 101–18.

## Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Veterinary Research.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Hybrid Species Are On The March – With The Help Of Humans. IFLScience. 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/hybrid-species-are-march-help-humans/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

## Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Financing Higher Education: Examples Comparing Existing and Proposed Student Aid Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

## Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Culumber JJ. Physician Practice Survival: The Role of Analytics in Shaping the Future. Doctoral dissertation. University of South Florida; 2017.

## News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly DA. On Road or Trail, Navigating Made Simple. New York Times. 2006;:56.

## In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].