How to format your references using the Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Young, E.D. Geochemistry. Strange Water in the Solar System. Science 2007, 317, 211–212.
A journal article with 2 authors
Norvell, A.; McMahon, S.B. Cell Biology. Rise of the Rival. Science 2010, 327, 964–965.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Ha, Y. Crystal Structure of a Rhomboid Family Intramembrane Protease. Nature 2006, 444, 179–180.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tang, Y.L.; Zhu, Y.L.; Wang, Y.J.; Wang, W.Y.; Xu, Y.B.; Ren, W.J.; Zhang, Z.D.; Ma, X.L. Atomic-Scale Mapping of Dipole Frustration at 90° Charged Domain Walls in Ferroelectric PbTiO3 Films. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4115.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Li, H.-X.; Lu, X. System Design and Control Integration for Advanced Manufacturing; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2014; ISBN 9781118822401.
An edited book
Boyadjiev, C. Modeling of Column Apparatus Processes; Doichinova, M., Boyadjiev, B., Popova-Krumova, P., Eds.; Heat and Mass Transfer; 1st ed. 2016.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319282572.
A chapter in an edited book
Ugalde, A.; Homedes, N. The Regulatory Framework and Case Studies from Argentina. In Clinical Trials in Latin America: Where Ethics and Business Clash; Homedes, N., Ugalde, A., Eds.; Research Ethics Forum; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; pp. 79–111 ISBN 9783319013626.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Using the Power of Evolution to Treat Cancer Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Highway Fund Audit; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1996;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reilly, C.A. Information and Communication Technology Use in the College Classroom: Adjunct Faculty Perspectives. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University: Scottsdale, AZ, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M.; Eder, S.; Krupnick, M. In Death of L.I. High School Player, Perils of a Sport Reverberate. New York Times 2014, B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
AbbreviationJ. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis.
ISSN (online)2308-3425

Other styles