How to format your references using the Sports Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sports Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Check, E. (2002). Gene therapy: shining hopes dented - but not dashed. Nature, 420(6917), 735.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lin, Y., & Zhang, Z. (2014). Mean first-passage time for maximal-entropy random walks in complex networks. Scientific Reports, 4, 5365.
A journal article with 3 authors
Luo, Z. X., Crompton, A. W., & Sun, A. L. (2001). A new mammaliaform from the early Jurassic and evolution of mammalian characteristics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5521), 1535–1540.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Li, L.-B., Yu, Z., Teng, X., & Bonini, N. M. (2008). RNA toxicity is a component of ataxin-3 degeneration in Drosophila. Nature, 453(7198), 1107–1111.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McLean, D. (2012). Understanding Aerodynamics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Brinkworth, J. F., & Pechenkina, K. (Eds.). (2013). Primates, Pathogens, and Evolution. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Taminau, J., Meganck, S., Lazar, C., Weiss-Solis, D. Y., Coletta, A., Walker, N., … Nowé, A. (2010). Sequential Application of Feature Selection and Extraction for Predicting Breast Cancer Aggressiveness. In J. H. Chan, Y.-S. Ong, & S.-B. Cho (Eds.), Computational Systems-Biology and Bioinformatics: First International Conference, CSBio 2010, Bangkok, Thailand, November 3-5, 2010. Proceedings (pp. 46–57). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sports Technology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015, August 5). Neutron Stars Can Produce Jets That Are Just As Powerful As Black Holes’. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). DOD Business Systems Modernization: Longstanding Management and Oversight Weaknesses Continue to Put Investments at Risk (No. GAO-03-553T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Works, R. F. (2016). Econometric modeling of exchange rate determinants by market classification: An empirical analysis of Japan and South Korea using the sticky-price monetary theory (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. (2017, May 4). The Inexhaustible Four. New York Times, p. BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Check, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Check, 2002; Lin & Zhang, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lin & Zhang, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Luo, Crompton, & Sun, 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Li, Yu, Teng, & Bonini, 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleSports Technology
AbbreviationSports Technol.
ISSN (print)1934-6182
ISSN (online)1934-6190
ScopeEngineering (miscellaneous)
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Human Factors and Ergonomics
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles