How to format your references using the Sports Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sports Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Halliwell, B. (2003). Plasma antioxidants: health benefits of eating chocolate? Nature, 426(6968), 787; discussion 788.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mulch, A., & Chamberlain, C. P. (2006). Earth science: the rise and growth of Tibet. Nature, 439(7077), 670–671.
A journal article with 3 authors
Merz, A. J., So, M., & Sheetz, M. P. (2000). Pilus retraction powers bacterial twitching motility. Nature, 407(6800), 98–102.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sarbassov, D. D., Guertin, D. A., Ali, S. M., & Sabatini, D. M. (2005). Phosphorylation and regulation of Akt/PKB by the rictor-mTOR complex. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5712), 1098–1101.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Uribe, S. (2017). Frontier Road. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Clough, P., Foley, C., Gurrin, C., Jones, G. J. F., Kraaij, W., Lee, H., & Mudoch, V. (Eds.). (2011). Advances in Information Retrieval: 33rd European Conference on IR Research, ECIR 2011, Dublin, Ireland, April 18-21, 2011. Proceedings (Vol. 6611). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pawlowski, S., Crespo, J., & Velizarov, S. (2016). Sustainable Power Generation from Salinity Gradient Energy by Reverse Electrodialysis. In A. B. Ribeiro, E. P. Mateus, & N. Couto (Eds.), Electrokinetics Across Disciplines and Continents: New Strategies for Sustainable Development (pp. 57–80). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sports Technology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 19). Baboons Don’t Play Follow The Leader – They’re Democratic Travellers. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). Bid Rejection Protest (B-178720). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Malekian, A. (2009). Combinatorial problems in online advertising [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2010, January 17). Comfort and Spice. New York Times, NJ9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Halliwell, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Halliwell, 2003; Mulch & Chamberlain, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mulch & Chamberlain, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Merz et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Sarbassov et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleSports Technology
AbbreviationSports Technol.
ISSN (print)1934-6182
ISSN (online)1934-6190
ScopeEngineering (miscellaneous)
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Human Factors and Ergonomics
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles