How to format your references using the Sports Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sports Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Steed, J. W. (2000). Crystals that breathe. Nature, 406(6799), 943–944.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rowe, T., & Frank, L. R. (2011). The disappearing third dimension. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6018), 712–714.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kuzuyama, T., Noel, J. P., & Richard, S. B. (2005). Structural basis for the promiscuous biosynthetic prenylation of aromatic natural products. Nature, 435(7044), 983–987.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Rauh, N. R., Schmidt, A., Bormann, J., Nigg, E. A., & Mayer, T. U. (2005). Calcium triggers exit from meiosis II by targeting the APC/C inhibitor XErp1 for degradation. Nature, 437(7061), 1048–1052.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fayngold, M. (2005). Special Relativity and Motions Faster than Light. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Oyama, T. (Ed.). (2016). Endoscopic Diagnosis of Superficial Gastric Cancer for ESD. Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Deb, A., Roychoudhury, S., & Sarkar, G. (2016). One-Shot Operational Matrices for Integration. In S. Roychoudhury & G. Sarkar (Eds.), Analysis and Identification of Time-Invariant Systems, Time-Varying Systems, and Multi-Delay Systems using Orthogonal Hybrid Functions: Theory and Algorithms with MATLAB® (pp. 115–140). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sports Technology.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017, June 5). Reintroduced Beavers In England Help Protect Against Floods And Soil Erosion. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1972). Employment Security Operations--The Impact of a Computerized Job Bank in Baltimore, Maryland (B-133182). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zavala, M. (2009). Latinos’ attitudes towards receiving mental health services [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dynarski, S. (2015, January 17). The Power of a Simple Nudge. New York Times, BU6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Steed, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Rowe & Frank, 2011; Steed, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rowe & Frank, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Kuzuyama et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Rauh et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleSports Technology
AbbreviationSports Technol.
ISSN (print)1934-6182
ISSN (online)1934-6190
ScopeEngineering (miscellaneous)
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Human Factors and Ergonomics
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles