How to format your references using the Sports Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sports Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butt, Y. (2009). Beyond the myth of the supernova-remnant origin of cosmic rays. Nature, 460(7256), 701–704.
A journal article with 2 authors
Serbina, N. V., & Pamer, E. G. (2003). Immunology. Giving credit where credit is due. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5641), 1856–1857.
A journal article with 3 authors
Akbarzadeh, A., Qiu, C.-W., & Danner, A. J. (2013). Exploiting design freedom in biaxial dielectrics to enable spatially overlapping optical instruments. Scientific Reports, 3, 2055.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Jeon, S., Jang, J. Y., Youn, J. R., Jeong, J.-H., Brenner, H., & Song, Y. S. (2013). Fullerene embedded shape memory nanolens array. Scientific Reports, 3, 3269.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wexler, S., Shaffer, J., & Cotgreave, A. (2017). The Big Book of Dashboards. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Alpern, S., Fokkink, R., Gąsieniec, L., Lindelauf, R., & Subrahmanian, V. S. (Eds.). (2013). Search Theory: A Game Theoretic Perspective. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ben Meskina, S., Doggaz, N., & Khalgui, M. (2015). An Efficient Reconfiguration-Based Approach for Improving Smart Grid Performance. In H. Fujita & G. Guizzi (Eds.), Intelligent Software Methodologies, Tools and Techniques: 14th International Conference, SoMet 2015, Naples, Italy, September 15-17, 2015. Proceedings (pp. 42–55). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sports Technology.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, September 12). Did This Chinese Billionaire Hide 6% Of The World’s Aluminum In Mexico To Cheat The Markets? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Comments on CRS Direct Loan Report (HRD-93-20R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dolan, D. J. (2017). Structural Evolution of Martin Crater Thaumasia Planum, Mars [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick, S. M. (2014, August 17). A Summer Delight on a Split Bun. New York Times, LI8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Butt, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Butt, 2009; Serbina & Pamer, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Serbina & Pamer, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Akbarzadeh et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Jeon et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSports Technology
AbbreviationSports Technol.
ISSN (print)1934-6182
ISSN (online)1934-6190
ScopeEngineering (miscellaneous)
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Human Factors and Ergonomics
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles