How to format your references using the Sports Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sports Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boehnke, K. (2015). Oh the humanities! Science (New York, N.Y.), 347(6226), 1166.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lucas, D., & Frenette, P. S. (2014). Stem cells: Reprogramming finds its niche. Nature, 511(7509), 301–302.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chester, J. S., Chester, F. M., & Kronenberg, A. K. (2005). Fracture surface energy of the Punchbowl fault, San Andreas system. Nature, 437(7055), 133–136.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Li, X. P., Xia, Q., Qu, D., Wu, T. C., Yang, D. G., Hao, W. D., Jiang, X., & Li, X. M. (2014). The dynamic dielectric at a brain functional site and an EM wave approach to functional brain imaging. Scientific Reports, 4, 6893.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alexander, M., & Walkenbach, J. (2012). 101 Ready-to-Use Excel® Macros. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cebollero, M. (2015). Pro T-SQL Programmer’s Guide (J. Natarajan & M. Coles, Eds.; 4th Edition). Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Singhal, V., & Aggarwal, P. (2011). Using Coverage to Deploy Formal Verification in a Simulation World. In G. Gopalakrishnan & S. Qadeer (Eds.), Computer Aided Verification: 23rd International Conference, CAV 2011, Snowbird, UT, USA, July 14-20, 2011. Proceedings (pp. 44–49). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sports Technology.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017, March 14). Colorful Murals Cover A 1,000-Year-Old Chinese Tomb. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1978). The Proper Use of Consultants, Experts, and Contractors (No. 098113). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beeler, M. C. (2010). Disordered Ultracold Two-Dimensional Bose Gases [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2006, October 7). Cider, From Doughnuts to Hot Dogs. New York Times, NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Boehnke, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Boehnke, 2015; Lucas & Frenette, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lucas & Frenette, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Chester et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Li et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSports Technology
AbbreviationSports Technol.
ISSN (print)1934-6182
ISSN (online)1934-6190
ScopeEngineering (miscellaneous)
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Human Factors and Ergonomics
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles