How to format your references using the Clinical Microbiology Newsletter citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Microbiology Newsletter. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rausher MD. Comment on “Evolutionary paths underlying flower color variation in Antirrhinum.” Science 2007;315:461; author reply 461.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bhattacharya K, James RD. Applied physics. The material is the machine. Science 2005;307:53–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jung H, Green HW II, Dobrzhinetskaya LF. Intermediate-depth earthquake faulting by dehydration embrittlement with negative volume change. Nature 2004;428:545–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Steuber T, Rauch M, Masse J-P, Graaf J, Malkoc M. Low-latitude seasonality of Cretaceous temperatures in warm and cold episodes. Nature 2005;437:1341–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burrows GE, Tyrl RJ. Toxic Plants of North America. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
Carlsson C. Possibility for Decision: A Possibilistic Approach to Real Life Decisions. vol. 270. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Moss S. Talking about ABSS: Functional Descriptions of Models. In: Squazzoni F, editor. Epistemological Aspects of Computer Simulation in the Social Sciences: Second International Workshop, EPOS 2006, Brescia, Italy, October 5-6, 2006, Revised Selected and Invited Papers, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009, p. 48–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Microbiology Newsletter.

Blog post
Luntz S. Your Doctor’s Politics May Affect The Healthcare You Get. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Mass Transit Grants: Scarce Federal Funds Misused in UMTA’s Philadelphia Region. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morikawa T. Aerodynamic analysis of an over-the-wing engine-mount aircraft. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. Looking Hot When It’s Cold. New York Times 2010:E7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Microbiology Newsletter
AbbreviationClin. Microbiol. Newsl.
ISSN (print)0196-4399
ScopeInfectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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