How to format your references using the Sports Biomechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sports Biomechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Betts, R. A. (2000). Offset of the potential carbon sink from boreal forestation by decreases in surface albedo. Nature, 408(6809), 187–190.
A journal article with 2 authors
Barron, A. B., & Brown, M. J. F. (2012). Science journalism: Let’s talk about sex. Nature, 488(7410), 151–152.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhuang, J., Yu, G.-R., & Nakayama, K. (2014). A series RCL circuit theory for analyzing non-steady-state water uptake of maize plants. Scientific Reports, 4, 6720.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gurnett, D. A., Persoon, A. M., Kurth, W. S., Groene, J. B., Averkamp, T. F., Dougherty, M. K., & Southwood, D. J. (2007). The variable rotation period of the inner region of Saturn’s plasma disk. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5823), 442–445.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wu, Z. (2007). Software VNA and Microwave Network Design and Characterisation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Vrancx, P., Knudson, M., & Grześ, M. (Eds.). (2012). Adaptive and Learning Agents: International Workshop, ALA 2011, Held at AAMAS 2011, Taipei, Taiwan, May 2, 2011, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 7113). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Benesty, J., Chen, J., Huang, Y., & Cohen, I. (2009). Mean-Squared Error Criterion. In Y. Huang, J. Chen, & J. Benesty (Eds.), Noise Reduction in Speech Processing (pp. 1–6). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sports Biomechanics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, April 23). The Forecast Calls For Spiders. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Self-Sufficiency: Opportunities and Disincentives on the Road to Economic Independence (HRD-93-23). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hatcher, R. (2012). Guide to improvisation for Mozart’s serenade in Bb Major, K. 361, the “Gran Partita” [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mumford, S. (1960, January 17). Article 6 -- No Title. New York Times, MagazineSM79.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Betts, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Barron & Brown, 2012; Betts, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Barron & Brown, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Zhuang et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Gurnett et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleSports Biomechanics
AbbreviationSports Biomech.
ISSN (print)1476-3141
ISSN (online)1752-6116
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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