How to format your references using the Sports Biomechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sports Biomechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hanson, J. (2014). John Cornforth (1917-2013). Nature, 506(7486), 35.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ezenwa, V. O., & Jolles, A. E. (2015). Epidemiology. Opposite effects of anthelmintic treatment on microbial infection at individual versus population scales. Science (New York, N.Y.), 347(6218), 175–177.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dominguez, P., Jacobson, A. G., & Jefferies, R. P. S. (2002). Paired gill slits in a fossil with a calcite skeleton. Nature, 417(6891), 841–844.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Liu, B. P., Fournier, A., GrandPré, T., & Strittmatter, S. M. (2002). Myelin-associated glycoprotein as a functional ligand for the Nogo-66 receptor. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5584), 1190–1193.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jones, N. F. (2008). The JCT Major Project Form. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Kräusslich, H.-G., & Bartenschlager, R. (Eds.). (2009). Antiviral Strategies (Vol. 189). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Fiengo, G., di Gaeta, A., Palladino, A., & Giglio, V. (2013). Synthesis and Experimental Validation of a Fuel Injection Pressure Controller in a Common Rail System. In A. di Gaeta, A. Palladino, & V. Giglio (Eds.), Common Rail System for GDI Engines: Modelling, Identification, and Control (pp. 57–78). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sports Biomechanics.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, October 6). The Color Of This Handbag Has Divided The Internet, Once Again. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Maritime Industry: As U.S. Single-Hull Oil Vessels Are Eliminated, Few Double-Hull Vessels May Replace Them (RCED-00-80). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vundavilli, R. (2014). Bubble Removal in Microfluidic Devices Using Nanofibrous Membranes [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, J. (2017, May 15). Climate Scientists Unite With Lawyers to Counter Attacks on Their Efforts. New York Times, A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hanson, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Ezenwa & Jolles, 2015; Hanson, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ezenwa & Jolles, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Dominguez et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Liu et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleSports Biomechanics
AbbreviationSports Biomech.
ISSN (print)1476-3141
ISSN (online)1752-6116
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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