How to format your references using the Sports Biomechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sports Biomechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Friedman, W. E. (2009). Evolution. Auxin at the evo-devo intersection. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5935), 1652–1653.
A journal article with 2 authors
Maillard, I., & Pear, W. S. (2007). Immunology. Keeping a tight leash on Notch. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5826), 840–842.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lanzillo, N. A., Kharche, N., & Nayak, S. K. (2014). Substrate-induced band gap renormalization in semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Scientific Reports, 4, 3609.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Grueninger, D., Treiber, N., Ziegler, M. O. P., Koetter, J. W. A., Schulze, M.-S., & Schulz, G. E. (2008). Designed protein-protein association. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5860), 206–209.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bowen, C. (2015). Children’s Speech Sound Disorders. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Lloyd, D., & Rossi, E. L. (Eds.). (2008). Ultradian Rhythms from Molecules to Mind: A New Vision of Life. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Mubarok, I., Lee, K., Lee, S., & Lee, H. (2014). Lightweight Resource Management for DDoS Traffic Isolation in a Cloud Environment. In N. Cuppens-Boulahia, F. Cuppens, S. Jajodia, A. Abou El Kalam, & T. Sans (Eds.), ICT Systems Security and Privacy Protection: 29th IFIP TC 11 International Conference, SEC 2014, Marrakech, Morocco, June 2-4, 2014. Proceedings (pp. 44–51). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sports Biomechanics.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017, February 3). Black Hole Might Be Hiding Inside A Nebula. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Commercial Motor Carriers: More Could Be Done to Determine Impact of Excessive Loading and Unloading Wait Times on Hours of Service Violations (GAO-11-198). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Janice, J. (2017). Preschoolers’ Prosocial Responding to Social Others’ Distress [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J., & Grynbaum, M. M. (2016, October 9). How NBC Was Scooped on Its Own ‘Access Hollywood’ Trump Video. New York Times, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Friedman, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Friedman, 2009; Maillard & Pear, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Maillard & Pear, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Lanzillo et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Grueninger et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleSports Biomechanics
AbbreviationSports Biomech.
ISSN (print)1476-3141
ISSN (online)1752-6116
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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