How to format your references using the Sports Biomechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sports Biomechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Deisseroth, K. (2014). Circuit dynamics of adaptive and maladaptive behaviour. Nature, 505(7483), 309–317.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ong, N. P., & Cava, R. J. (2004). Physics. Electronic frustration on a triangular lattice. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5680), 52–53.
A journal article with 3 authors
Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M., Sakbodin, M., & Wang, Z. (2006). Regenerative adsorption and removal of H2S from hot fuel gas streams by rare earth oxides. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5779), 1508–1510.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nelson, R., Sawaya, M. R., Balbirnie, M., Madsen, A. Ø., Riekel, C., Grothe, R., & Eisenberg, D. (2005). Structure of the cross-beta spine of amyloid-like fibrils. Nature, 435(7043), 773–778.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marteel-Parrish, A. E., & Abraham, M. A. (2013). Green Chemistry and Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cunha, P. F., & Maropoulos, P. G. (Eds.). (2007). Digital Enterprise Technology: Perspectives and Future Challenges. Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Rosen, E., & Tsesis, I. (2014). Surgical Anesthesia: When a Tool Becomes a Weapon. In I. Tsesis (Ed.), Complications in Endodontic Surgery: Prevention, Identification and Management (pp. 53–60). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sports Biomechanics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, October 10). Stem Cell Breakthrough Edges Scientists Closer To Effective Treatment For Type 1 Diabetes. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Intercollegiate Athletics: Recent Trends in Teams and Participants in National Collegiate Athletic Association Sports (GAO-07-535). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Turner, L. B. (2012). Diet, physical activity and breast cancer risk: An integrative science cross-populational approach [Doctoral dissertation]. Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B. (2017, September 25). As Syrian War Drags On, Assad’s Grip Tightens. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Deisseroth, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Deisseroth, 2014; Ong & Cava, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ong & Cava, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Flytzani-Stephanopoulos et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Nelson et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleSports Biomechanics
AbbreviationSports Biomech.
ISSN (print)1476-3141
ISSN (online)1752-6116
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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