How to format your references using the Sports Biomechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sports Biomechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barton, R. A. (2002). How did brains evolve? Nature, 415(6868), 134–135.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lopes, I., & Silk, J. (2010). Neutrino spectroscopy can probe the dark matter content in the Sun. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6003), 462.
A journal article with 3 authors
Qin, Z., Pugno, N. M., & Buehler, M. J. (2014). Mechanics of fragmentation of crocodile skin and other thin films. Scientific Reports, 4, 4966.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Guarani, V., Deflorian, G., Franco, C. A., Krüger, M., Phng, L.-K., Bentley, K., Toussaint, L., Dequiedt, F., Mostoslavsky, R., Schmidt, M. H. H., Zimmermann, B., Brandes, R. P., Mione, M., Westphal, C. H., Braun, T., Zeiher, A. M., Gerhardt, H., Dimmeler, S., & Potente, M. (2011). Acetylation-dependent regulation of endothelial Notch signalling by the SIRT1 deacetylase. Nature, 473(7346), 234–238.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sedlacek, H. H., Sapienza, A. M., & Eid, V. (2008). Ways to Successful Strategies in Drug Research and Development. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
Brand, M. van D., Gašević, D., & Gray, J. (Eds.). (2010). Software Language Engineering: Second International Conference, SLE 2009, Denver, CO, USA, October 5-6, 2009, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 5969). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Mares, D., & Moschek, W. (2013). Place in Time: GIS and the Spatial Imagination in Teaching History. In A. von Lünen & C. Travis (Eds.), History and GIS: Epistemologies, Considerations and Reflections (pp. 59–72). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sports Biomechanics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, October 8). How African Honey Bees Can Help Mitigate Global Colony Losses. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). Railroad Safety: More FRA Oversight Needed to Ensure Rail Safety in Region 2 (RCED-90-140). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bowmar, J. S. (2012). Building Energy Efficiency and Resilience in the United States, One Disaster at a Time: Fostering Green Building Principles through Disaster Assistance [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), L. G. (2005, November 29). National Briefing | Washington: Chunk Of Marble Falls From Supreme Court. New York Times, A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Barton, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Barton, 2002; Lopes & Silk, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lopes & Silk, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Qin et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Guarani et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleSports Biomechanics
AbbreviationSports Biomech.
ISSN (print)1476-3141
ISSN (online)1752-6116
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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