How to format your references using the Sports Biomechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sports Biomechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wirth, B. D. (2007). Materials science. How does radiation damage materials? Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5852), 923–924.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schofield, R. M. S., & Nesson, M. H. (2003). Comment on “High abrasion resistance with sparse mineralization: copper biomineral in worm jaws.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5636), 1049; author reply 1049.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kokoeva, M. V., Yin, H., & Flier, J. S. (2005). Neurogenesis in the hypothalamus of adult mice: potential role in energy balance. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5748), 679–683.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Miller, S. E., Collins, B. M., McCoy, A. J., Robinson, M. S., & Owen, D. J. (2007). A SNARE-adaptor interaction is a new mode of cargo recognition in clathrin-coated vesicles. Nature, 450(7169), 570–574.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blanchet, G., & Charbit, M. (2015). Digital Signal and Image Processing Using MATLAB®. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cossentino, M., Kaisers, M., Tuyls, K., & Weiss, G. (Eds.). (2012). Multi-Agent Systems: 9th European Workshop, EUMAS 2011, Maastricht, The Netherlands, November 14-15, 2011. Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 7541). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Li, S., Mao, J., & Wang, S. (2008). Cylinder Head Fem Analysis and its Improvement. In D. Li (Ed.), Computer And Computing Technologies In Agriculture, Volume II: First IFIP TC 12 International Conference on Computer and Computing Technologies in Agriculture (CCTA 2007), Wuyishan, China, August 18-20, 2007 (pp. 761–768). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sports Biomechanics.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, August 26). Rare, Hairy Nautilus Spotted For The First Time in 30 Years. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Critical Infrastructure Protection: National Plan for Information Systems Protection (No. AIMD-00-90R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Collins, L. (2009). A community risk assessment of the 90062 zip code (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nir, S. M. (2017, June 30). Doctor Storms Bronx Hospital In Fatal Attack. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wirth, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Schofield & Nesson, 2003; Wirth, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schofield & Nesson, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Kokoeva, Yin, & Flier, 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Miller, Collins, McCoy, Robinson, & Owen, 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleSports Biomechanics
AbbreviationSports Biomech.
ISSN (print)1476-3141
ISSN (online)1752-6116
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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