How to format your references using the IEEE Signal Processing Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Signal Processing Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. J. Dalcanton, “18 years of science with the Hubble Space Telescope,” Nature, vol. 457, no. 7225, pp. 41–50, Jan. 2009.
A journal article with 2 authors
L. Wang and D. J. Anderson, “Identification of an aggression-promoting pheromone and its receptor neurons in Drosophila,” Nature, vol. 463, no. 7278, pp. 227–231, Jan. 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
F. S. Al-Zaid, A. A. Alhader, and L. Y. Al-Ayadhi, “Altered ghrelin levels in boys with autism: a novel finding associated with hormonal dysregulation,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 6478, Sep. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
N. Madhusudhan et al., “A high C/O ratio and weak thermal inversion in the atmosphere of exoplanet WASP-12b,” Nature, vol. 469, no. 7328, pp. 64–67, Jan. 2011.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Forshaw, Understanding Headaches and Migraines. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2006.
An edited book
A. A. Minai, D. Braha, and Y. Bar-Yam, Eds., Unifying Themes in Complex Systems VII: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Complex Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Inaba, “Chemical Degradation of Perfluorinated Sulfonic Acid Membranes,” in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Durability, F. N. Büchi, M. Inaba, and T. J. Schmidt, Eds. New York, NY: Springer, 2009, pp. 57–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Signal Processing Letters.

Blog post
T. Hale, “Here’s What Scientists Found When They Opened A Cave That Had Been Isolated For More Than Five Million Years,” IFLScience, 23-May-2016. .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Information Technology: SSA Needs to Address Limitations in Management Controls and Human Capital Planning to Support Modernization Efforts,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-14-308, May 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Turpin-Padberg, “Effects of Elementary Teacher Preparation and Support on Retention,” Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, “Great Pitching, Greater Expectations,” New York Times, p. B17, 07-Apr-2011.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Signal Processing Letters
AbbreviationIEEE Signal Process. Lett.
ISSN (print)1070-9908
ScopeSignal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Applied Mathematics

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