How to format your references using the IEEE Signal Processing Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Signal Processing Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. K. Behrensmeyer, “Atmosphere. Climate change and human evolution,” Science, vol. 311, no. 5760, pp. 476–478, Jan. 2006.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. A. Long and M. S. Fee, “Using temperature to analyse temporal dynamics in the songbird motor pathway,” Nature, vol. 456, no. 7219, pp. 189–194, Nov. 2008.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. Sun, P. Munroe, and G. Wang, “Ruthenium nanocrystals as cathode catalysts for lithium-oxygen batteries with a superior performance,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 2247, 2013.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P. Zhang, V. H. Crespi, E. Chang, S. G. Louie, and M. L. Cohen, “Computational design of direct-bandgap semiconductors that lattice-match silicon,” Nature, vol. 409, no. 6816, pp. 69–71, Jan. 2001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. R. Denny and S. J. Butterworth, A Guide to Canine and Feline Orthopaedic Surgery. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd, 2008.
An edited book
B. de Noya, Trypanosoma cruzi as a Foodborne Pathogen, 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Verdi, “Stefan Problems and Numerical Analysis,” in Analysis and Numerics of Partial Differential Equations, F. Brezzi, P. Colli Franzone, U. Gianazza, and G. Gilardi, Eds. Milano: Springer, 2013, pp. 37–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Signal Processing Letters.

Blog post
T. Hale, “The Internet Is Hooked On This Color Perception Quiz - How Did You Score?,” IFLScience, Jun. 30, 2016. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Highway Bridge Program: Condition of Nation’s Bridges Shows Limited Improvement, but Further Actions Could Enhance the Impact of Federal Investment,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-10-930T, Jul. 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. Selby, “With|out,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, “An Intersection Where ‘Oh, No!’ Meets ‘Watch Out!,’” New York Times, p. 146, May 05, 2002.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Signal Processing Letters
AbbreviationIEEE Signal Process. Lett.
ISSN (print)1070-9908
ScopeSignal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Applied Mathematics

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