How to format your references using the IEEE Signal Processing Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Signal Processing Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
F. Fuks, “Journal club. A cancer biologist marvels at how key gene regulators are still revealing hidden talents,” Nature, vol. 466, no. 7305, p. 417, Jul. 2010.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. D. Rogers and K. R. Seddon, “Chemistry. Ionic liquids--solvents of the future?,” Science, vol. 302, no. 5646, pp. 792–793, Oct. 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Lu, L. Lu, and S. Suresh, “Strengthening materials by engineering coherent internal boundaries at the nanoscale,” Science, vol. 324, no. 5925, pp. 349–352, Apr. 2009.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
N. Akamatsu et al., “Facile strain analysis of largely bending films by a surface-labelled grating method,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 5377, Jun. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Glisic, Advanced Wireless Communications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2005.
An edited book
D. Martinovic, V. Freiman, and Z. Karadag, Eds., Visual Mathematics and Cyberlearning, vol. 1. in Mathematics Education in the Digital Era, vol. 1. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Gamalielsson and B. Lundell, “On Involvement in Open Standards: How Do Organisations Contribute to W3C Standards Through Editorship?,” in Open Source Systems: Integrating Communities: 12th IFIP WG 2.13 International Conference, OSS 2016, Gothenburg, Sweden, May 30 - June 2, 2016, Proceedings, K. Crowston, I. Hammouda, B. Lundell, G. Robles, J. Gamalielsson, and J. Lindman, Eds., in IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology. , Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 57–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Signal Processing Letters.

Blog post
D. Andrew, “How To Stop A Zombie Apocalypse – With Science,” IFLScience. Accessed: Oct. 30, 2018. [Online]. Available:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Federal Research: Interim Report on the Pilot Technology Access Program,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, RCED-94-75, Mar. 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Maitland, “Differences in Perceived Organizational Justice Based Upon Overall Performance Appraisal Ratings,” Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
C. Isherwood, “A Jacobean Hit Man Who Doesn’t Want Cash,” New York Times, p. C4, Jan. 11, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Signal Processing Letters
AbbreviationIEEE Signal Process. Lett.
ISSN (print)1070-9908
ScopeSignal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Applied Mathematics

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