How to format your references using the Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Buckingham, Call in the women, Nature. 468 (2010) 502.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.J. Klein, A.R. Ferré-D’Amaré, Structural basis of glmS ribozyme activation by glucosamine-6-phosphate, Science. 313 (2006) 1752–1756.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. Scaillet, M. Pichavant, R. Cioni, Upward migration of Vesuvius magma chamber over the past 20,000 years, Nature. 455 (2008) 216–219.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Yusa, S.T. Rashid, H. Strick-Marchand, I. Varela, P.-Q. Liu, D.E. Paschon, E. Miranda, A. Ordóñez, N.R.F. Hannan, F.J. Rouhani, S. Darche, G. Alexander, S.J. Marciniak, N. Fusaki, M. Hasegawa, M.C. Holmes, J.P. Di Santo, D.A. Lomas, A. Bradley, L. Vallier, Targeted gene correction of α1-antitrypsin deficiency in induced pluripotent stem cells, Nature. 478 (2011) 391–394.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D.J. Neff, R.C. Moss, The Future of Nonprofits, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
N. Banichuk, Mechanics of Moving Materials, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Armitage, Bacterial Behavior, in: M. Dworkin, S. Falkow, E. Rosenberg, K.-H. Schleifer, E. Stackebrandt (Eds.), The Prokaryotes: Volume 2: Ecophysiology and Biochemistry, Springer, New York, NY, 2006: pp. 102–139.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Climbing The Tree: The Case For Chimpanzee ‘Personhood,’ IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, U.S. Government Actions Affecting Rice Sales to Korea, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1983.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.A. Waterman, Housing for the homeless mentally ill population: A grant writing project, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.J.O. Murphy, Stepping Alone, Together, New York Times. (2015) AR12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSpectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
AbbreviationSpectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.
ISSN (print)1386-1425
ScopeAnalytical Chemistry
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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