How to format your references using the Space Weather citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Space Weather. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kazlauskas, R. (2001). Tech.Sight. Modeling--a tool for experimentalists. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5538), 2277–2279.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lieberman, R. L., & Rosenzweig, A. C. (2005). Crystal structure of a membrane-bound metalloenzyme that catalyses the biological oxidation of methane. Nature, 434(7030), 177–182.
A journal article with 3 authors
Daviter, T., Murphy, F. V., 4th, & Ramakrishnan, V. (2005). Molecular biology. A renewed focus on transfer RNA. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5725), 1123–1124.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Grenon, S. M., Jeanne, M., Aguado-Zuniga, J., Conte, M. S., & Hughes-Fulford, M. (2013). Effects of gravitational mechanical unloading in endothelial cells: association between caveolins, inflammation and adhesion molecules. Scientific Reports, 3, 1494.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dinçer, İ., & Zamfirescu, C. (2015). Drying Phenomena. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Maciaszek, L. A., & Filipe, J. (Eds.). (2013). Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering: 7th International Conference, ENASE 2012, Warsaw, Poland, June 29-30, 2012, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 410). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kraskov, A., & Grassberger, P. (2009). MIC: Mutual Information Based Hierarchical Clustering. In F. Emmert-Streib & M. Dehmer (Eds.), Information Theory and Statistical Learning (pp. 101–123). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Space Weather.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 18). A Simple Daily Pregnancy Pill Could Boost Population IQ And Save The NHS Money. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1985). Implementing the Small Business Innovation Development Act--The First 2 Years (No. RCED-86-13). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sachdev, N. A. (2012). An Evaluation of the District of Columbia Summer Youth Employment Program (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. (2014, June 23). Leaping From Marvel to DC in a Single Bound. New York Times, p. C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kazlauskas, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Kazlauskas, 2001; Lieberman & Rosenzweig, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lieberman & Rosenzweig, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Grenon et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpace Weather
AbbreviationSpace Weather
ISSN (print)1539-4956
ISSN (online)1542-7390
ScopeAtmospheric Science

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