How to format your references using the Space Weather citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Space Weather. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clayton, J. (2004). RNA interference: the silent treatment. Nature, 431(7008), 599–605.
A journal article with 2 authors
Antonakis, J., & Dalgas, O. (2009). Predicting elections: child’s play! Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5918), 1183.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gollihar, J., Levy, M., & Ellington, A. D. (2014). Biochemistry. Many paths to the origin of life. Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6168), 259–260.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Honsho, Y., Miyakai, T., Sakurai, T., Saeki, A., & Seki, S. (2013). Evaluation of intrinsic charge carrier transport at insulator-semiconductor interfaces probed by a non-contact microwave-based technique. Scientific Reports, 3, 3182.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Provost, J. J., Colabroy, K. L., Kelly, B. S., & Wallert, M. A. (2016). The Science of Cooking. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Picichè, M. (Ed.). (2013). Dawn and Evolution of Cardiac Procedures: Research Avenues in Cardiac Surgery and Interventional Cardiology. Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wallis, V. (2010). Socialism and Technology: A Sectoral Overview. In Q. Huan (Ed.), Eco-socialism as Politics: Rebuilding the Basis of Our Modern Civilisation (pp. 45–61). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Space Weather.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, September 10). Companion Star Hidden for 21 Years in Supernova’s Glow. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1986). GAO Reviews of USDA Biotechnology Research Efforts and Regulatory Programs and Activities (No. 129809). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bradford, J. (2012). Commutative endomorphism rings of simple abelian varieties over finite fields (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, J. (2017, March 16). The City Awakens. New York Times, p. MB7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clayton, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Antonakis & Dalgas, 2009; Clayton, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Antonakis & Dalgas, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Honsho et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpace Weather
AbbreviationSpace Weather
ISSN (print)1539-4956
ISSN (online)1542-7390
ScopeAtmospheric Science

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