How to format your references using the Space Weather citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Space Weather. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiebinger, L. (2014). Scientific research must take gender into account. Nature, 507(7490), 9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Levine, J. M., & HilleRisLambers, J. (2009). The importance of niches for the maintenance of species diversity. Nature, 461(7261), 254–257.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zanardi, I., Zifarelli, G., & Pusch, M. (2013). An optical assay of the transport activity of ClC-7. Scientific Reports, 3, 1231.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Heersche, H. B., Jarillo-Herrero, P., Oostinga, J. B., Vandersypen, L. M. K., & Morpurgo, A. F. (2007). Bipolar supercurrent in graphene. Nature, 446(7131), 56–59.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bertolo, D. (2016). Interactions on Digital Tablets in the Context of 3D Geometry Learning. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Röfer, T., Mayer, N. M., Savage, J., & Saranlı, U. (Eds.). (2012). RoboCup 2011: Robot Soccer World Cup XV (Vol. 7416). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Abidin, A. F., Kolberg, M., & Hussain, A. (2015). Integrating Twitter Traffic Information with Kalman Filter Models for Public Transportation Vehicle Arrival Time Prediction. In M. Trovati, R. Hill, A. Anjum, S. Y. Zhu, & L. Liu (Eds.), Big-Data Analytics and Cloud Computing: Theory, Algorithms and Applications (pp. 67–82). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Space Weather.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016, June 24). New Dark Spot Seen On Neptune For The First Time This Century. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1987). ADP Systems: SSA’s Modernization Efforts Need Redirection (No. IMTEC-87-16). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Packer, C. D. (2013). School Referenda and Ohio Department of Education Typologies: An Investigation of the Outcomes of First Attempt School Operating Levies from 2002–2010 (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus, S. (2017, June 9). A Dramatist as Dungeon Master. New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schiebinger, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Levine & HilleRisLambers, 2009; Schiebinger, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Levine & HilleRisLambers, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Heersche et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpace Weather
AbbreviationSpace Weather
ISSN (print)1539-4956
ISSN (online)1542-7390
ScopeAtmospheric Science

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