How to format your references using the Space Weather citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Space Weather. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, J. (2011). A long shadow over Fukushima. Nature, 472(7341), 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Baudisch, A., & Vaupel, J. W. (2012). Evolution. Getting to the root of aging. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6107), 618–619.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yamashita, T., Hige, T., & Takahashi, T. (2005). Vesicle endocytosis requires dynamin-dependent GTP hydrolysis at a fast CNS synapse. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5706), 124–127.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yarbrough, M. L., Li, Y., Kinch, L. N., Grishin, N. V., Ball, H. L., & Orth, K. (2009). AMPylation of Rho GTPases by Vibrio VopS disrupts effector binding and downstream signaling. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5911), 269–272.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gros, D., & Lannoo, K. (2004). The Euro Capital Market. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Pol, J. van de, & Weber, M. (Eds.). (2010). Model Checking Software: 17th International SPIN Workshop, Enschede, The Netherlands, September 27-29, 2010. Proceedings (Vol. 6349). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Alves-Prado, H. F., Gomes, E., & Da Silva, R. (2007). Purification and Characterization of a Cyclomaltodextrin Glucanotransferase From Paenibacillus campinasensis Strain H69-3. In J. R. Mielenz, K. T. Klasson, W. S. Adney, & J. D. McMillan (Eds.), Applied Biochemistry and Biotecnology: The Twenty-Eighth Symposium Proceedings of the Twenty-Eight Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals Held April 30–May 3, 2006, in Nashville, Tennessee (pp. 41–55). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Space Weather.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015, July 24). Asteroid Mining Company Planetary Resources Launches Its First Prototype Spacecraft. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Federal Research: Assessment of Small Business Innovation Research Programs (No. RCED-89-39). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hemschik, T. K. (2008). Course designs, instructional strategies, and support systems in K–8 online education: A case study (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter, J. (2017, June 22). An Olio of E.U. Rules, Leading to Food Fights. New York Times, p. B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Baudisch & Vaupel, 2012; Smith, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Baudisch & Vaupel, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Yarbrough et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpace Weather
AbbreviationSpace Weather
ISSN (print)1539-4956
ISSN (online)1542-7390
ScopeAtmospheric Science

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