How to format your references using the Space Weather citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Space Weather. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Motani, R. (2002). Scaling effects in caudal fin propulsion and the speed of ichthyosaurs. Nature, 415(6869), 309–312.
A journal article with 2 authors
Leontis, N. B., & Westhof, E. (2014). Chemistry. Self-assembled RNA nanostructures. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6198), 732–733.
A journal article with 3 authors
Carporzen, L., Gilder, S. A., & Hart, R. J. (2005). Palaeomagnetism of the Vredefort meteorite crater and implications for craters on Mars. Nature, 435(7039), 198–201.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Greaves, J. S., Holland, W. S., Jenness, T., & Hawarden, T. G. (2000). Magnetic field surrounding the starburst nucleus of the galaxy M82 from polarized dust emission. Nature, 404(6779), 732–733.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weisberg, H. I. (2014). Willful Ignorance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Leung, C. S., Lee, M., & Chan, J. H. (Eds.). (2009). Neural Information Processing: 16th International Conference, ICONIP 2009, Bangkok, Thailand, December 1-5, 2009, Proceedings, Part II (Vol. 5864). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rodríguez-de-Pablo, C., Popović, M., Savić, A., Perry, J. C., Belloso, A., Tomić, T. D., & Keller, T. (2016). Post-stroke Robotic Upper-Limb Telerehabilitation Using Serious Games to Increase Patient Motivation: First Results from ArmAssist System Clinical Trial. In A. R. Londral & P. Encarnação (Eds.), Advances in Neurotechnology, Electronics and Informatics: Revised Selected Papers from the 2nd International Congress on Neurotechnology, Electronics and Informatics (NEUROTECHNIX 2014), October 25-26, Rome, Italy (pp. 63–78). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Space Weather.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, August 6). Small Dog-Sized Dinosaur Discovered in Venezuela. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Strategic Bombers: Issues Related to the B-1B Aircraft Program (No. T-NSIAD-91-11). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lofton, C. D. (2012). Mid-Career Transitions: A Qualitative Study Examining the Developmental Relationships, Attitudes, Networks, and Strategies of Frontline Workers that Seek Career Development and Advancement (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1992, August 27). THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Political Memo; Republicans Re-Think “Family Values” Focus. New York Times, p. A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Motani, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Leontis & Westhof, 2014; Motani, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Leontis & Westhof, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Greaves et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleSpace Weather
AbbreviationSpace Weather
ISSN (print)1539-4956
ISSN (online)1542-7390
ScopeAtmospheric Science

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