How to format your references using the Oceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Erwin, D. H. 2015. RETROSPECTIVE. Eric Davidson (1937-2015). Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6260):517,.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lu, X., and C. Brelsford. 2014. Network structure and community evolution on Twitter: human behavior change in response to the 2011 Japanese earthquake and tsunami. Scientific Reports, 4:6773,.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nelson, W. A., E. McCauley, and F. J. Wrona. 2005. Stage-structured cycles promote genetic diversity in a predator-prey system of Daphnia and algae. Nature, 433(7024):413–417,.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Goodman, M. B., G. G. Ernstrom, D. S. Chelur, R. O’Hagan, C. A. Yao, and M. Chalfie. 2002. MEC-2 regulates C. elegans DEG/ENaC channels needed for mechanosensation. Nature, 415(6875):1039–1042,.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carroll, J. M., C. Bowyer-Crane, F. J. Duff, C. Hulme, and M. J. Snowling. 2011. Developing Language and Literacy. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, pp.
An edited book
2011. E-Learning in Sanità: Progettare, Produrre Ed Erogare Corsi Di Formazione Online per l’area Sanitaria (M. R. Guelfi,, M. Masoni,, A. Conti, and G. F. Gensini, eds). Springer, Milano, XXIV, 244 pagg. 50 figg., 40 figg. a colori pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Näppi, J. J., D. Regge, and H. Yoshida. 2012. Comparative Performance of Random Forest and Support Vector Machine Classifiers for Detection of Colorectal Lesions in CT Colonography; Pp. 27–34. In Abdominal Imaging. Computational and Clinical Applications: Third International Workshop, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2011, Toronto, ON, Canada, September 18, 2011, Revised Selected Papers., . Lecture Notes in Computer Science H. Yoshida,, G. Sakas, and M. G. Linguraru, eds, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oceanography.

Blog post
Hale, T. 2017. Motorcyclists Appear To Come Across A “Tribesman” In Indonesian Forest. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. Degradable Plastics: Standards, Research and Development. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, pp.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Domina, N. V. 2009. Gender and culture influences on leadership perceptions. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC p.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. 2017. ‘Madman’ On Mound, Coolheaded Off the Field. New York Times, B12,.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Erwin, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Lu and Brelsford, 2014; Erwin, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lu and Brelsford, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Goodman et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleOceanography
AbbreviationOceanography (Wash. D. C.)
ISSN (print)1042-8275

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