How to format your references using the Oceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bürgmann, R. 2014. Earth science: Warning signs of the Iquique earthquake. Nature, 512(7514):258–259,.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jordan, M. I., and T. M. Mitchell. 2015. Machine learning: Trends, perspectives, and prospects. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6245):255–260,.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bizzarro, M., J. A. Baker, and H. Haack. 2004. Mg isotope evidence for contemporaneous formation of chondrules and refractory inclusions. Nature, 431(7006):275–278,.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Atabaki, A. H., S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram. 2018. Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip. Nature, 556(7701):349–354,.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Esch, G. W. 2015. Ecological Parasitology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, pp.
An edited book
2005. Neurobiology of Human Values (J.-P. Changeux,, A. R. Damasio,, W. Singer, and Y. Christen, eds). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XV, 159 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Cheung, R. 2009. A Context-Aware Adaptation Model for Efficient Web Browsing on Mobile Devices; Pp. 41–54. In Advances in Communication and Networking: Second International Conference on Future Generation Communication and Networking, FGCN 2008, Sanya, Hainan Island, China, December 13-15, 2008. Revised Selected Papers., . Communications in Computer and Information Science T.-H. Kim,, L. T. Yang,, J. H. Park,, A. C.-C. Chang,, T. Vasilakos, and S.-S. Yeo, eds, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oceanography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014. Promising New Cancer Vaccine Developed. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Education and Care: Early Childhood Programs and Services for Low-Income Families. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, pp.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Best, W. 2009. Beneath the Silence. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA p.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. 1998. Needles Click to a Younger Beat. New York Times, 144,.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bürgmann, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Bürgmann, 2014; Jordan and Mitchell, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jordan and Mitchell, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Atabaki et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleOceanography
AbbreviationOceanography (Wash. D. C.)
ISSN (print)1042-8275

Other styles