How to format your references using the Oceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Luber-Narod, J. 2000. Soft money is hard to find. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5491):453b,.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rivenbark, A. G., and B. D. Strahl. 2007. Molecular biology. Unlocking cell fate. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5849):403–404,.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ryu, H.-W., C.-W. Park, and K.-Y. Ryu. 2014. Disruption of polyubiquitin gene Ubb causes dysregulation of neural stem cell differentiation with premature gliogenesis. Scientific Reports, 4:7026,.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Scott, S. H., P. L. Gribble, K. M. Graham, and D. W. Cabel. 2001. Dissociation between hand motion and population vectors from neural activity in motor cortex. Nature, 413(6852):161–165,.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Strome, T. L. 2013. Healthcare Analytics for Quality and Performance Improvement. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, pp.
An edited book
2014. Web Technologies and Applications: APWeb 2014 Workshops, SNA, NIS, and IoTS, Changsha, China, September 5, 2014. Proceedings (W. Han,, Z. Huang,, C. Hu,, H. Zhang, and L. Guo, eds). Springer International Publishing, Cham, XIV, 404 p. 158 illus pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Bharadwaj, U., M. M. Kasembeli, and D. J. Tweardy. 2016. STAT3 Inhibitors in Cancer: A Comprehensive Update; Pp. 95–161. In STAT Inhibitors in Cancer., . Cancer Drug Discovery and Development A. C. Ward, ed, Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oceanography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2014. Why Do Men Get Erections In The Morning? IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1990. High Definition Television: The Effects of Standards on U.S. Entertainment Industries. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, pp.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wright, E. A. 2012. Assessing Leadership Behaviors and Demographic Characteristics of Project Managers Associated Through LinkedIn. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ p.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L. F. 2006. An Animal Sanctuary Is Under Pressure to Move. New York Times, 14WC5,.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Luber-Narod, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Luber-Narod, 2000; Rivenbark and Strahl, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rivenbark and Strahl, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Scott et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleOceanography
AbbreviationOceanography (Wash. D. C.)
ISSN (print)1042-8275

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