How to format your references using the Oceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kramers, J. 2001. Geology. The smile of the Cheshire cat. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5530):619–620,.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reichenbach, A., and T. Pannicke. 2008. Neuroscience. A new glance at glia. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5902):693–694,.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gehring, M., K. L. Bubb, and S. Henikoff. 2009. Extensive demethylation of repetitive elements during seed development underlies gene imprinting. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5933):1447–1451,.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Johnson, M. E., L. Viggiano, J. A. Bailey, M. Abdul-Rauf, G. Goodwin, M. Rocchi, and E. E. Eichler. 2001. Positive selection of a gene family during the emergence of humans and African apes. Nature, 413(6855):514–519,.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McCrary, S. A. 2010. Mastering Corporate Finance Essentials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, pp.
An edited book
2007. The Safety of Systems: Proceedings of the Fifteenth Safety-Critical Systems Symposium, Bristol, UK, 13–15 February 2007 (F. Redmill, and T. Anderson, eds). Springer, London, X, 262 p. 61 illus pp.
A chapter in an edited book
Banichuk, N., J. Jeronen, P. Neittaanmäki, T. Saksa, and T. Tuovinen. 2014. Non-Homogeneous Tension Profile; Pp. 69–88. In Mechanics of Moving Materials., . Solid Mechanics and Its Applications J. Jeronen,, P. Neittaanmäki,, T. Saksa, and T. Tuovinen, eds, Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oceanography.

Blog post
Andrew, D. 2015. Scientists Remove 12 Centimeter Plastic STRAW From Sea Turtle’s Nose. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. Education Needs to Further Examine Data Collection on English Language Learners in Charter Schools. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, pp.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beard, J. A. 2014. Evidence of Leadership Competencies in the Journal of Mary Easton Sibley, a Pioneering 19th Century Women’s College Founder. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO p.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson, M., and B. Sisario. 2017. Hit Shows on Two Continents Confront One Villain: Scalpers. New York Times, A1,.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kramers, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Kramers, 2001; Reichenbach and Pannicke, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Reichenbach and Pannicke, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Johnson et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleOceanography
AbbreviationOceanography (Wash. D. C.)
ISSN (print)1042-8275

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