How to format your references using the Oceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Appelbaum, F. R. 2012. Retrospective. E. Donnall Thomas (1920-2012). Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6111):1163,.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fredrick, K., and H. F. Noller. 2003. Catalysis of ribosomal translocation by sparsomycin. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5622):1159–1162,.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tewksbury, J. J., R. B. Huey, and C. A. Deutsch. 2008. Ecology. Putting the heat on tropical animals. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5881):1296–1297,.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Faccio, G., M. M. Kämpf, C. Piatti, L. Thöny-Meyer, and M. Richter. 2014. Tyrosinase-catalyzed site-specific immobilization of engineered C-phycocyanin to surface. Scientific Reports, 4:5370,.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chowdhury, S. 2016. Optimization and Business Improvement Studies in Upstream Oil and Gas Industry. John Wiley &;#38; Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, pp.
An edited book
Guerraggio, A. 2006. Italian Mathematics Between the Two World Wars (P. Nastasi, ed). Birkhäuser, Basel, X, 299 p pp.
A chapter in an edited book
George, M., M.-C. Campagna, P. Babber, and S. A. Faiz. 2016. Pulmonary and Airway Emergencies; Pp. 93–111. In Oncologic Emergencies. E. F. Manzullo,, C. E. Gonzalez,, C. P. Escalante, and S.-C. J. Yeung, eds, Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oceanography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2013. Video shows fire ants are capable of acting like a liquid and a solid. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Higher Education: Tuition Increases and Colleges’ Efforts to Contain Costs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, pp.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzalez, A. X. 2017. Échale Ganas: Engaging, Educating, and Empowering Latino Males at Four-Year Institutions. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA p.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch, J. 2016. Short, Hard Climb (So He Hoped). New York Times, D1,.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Appelbaum, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Fredrick and Noller, 2003; Appelbaum, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fredrick and Noller, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Faccio et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleOceanography
AbbreviationOceanography (Wash. D. C.)
ISSN (print)1042-8275

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