How to format your references using the Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoshino, M. (2003). Space physics. Coupling across many scales. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5608), 834–835.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fitzgerald, K. A., & Golenbock, D. T. (2007). Immunology. The shape of things to come. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5831), 1574–1576.
A journal article with 3 authors
Debayle, E., Kennett, B., & Priestley, K. (2005). Global azimuthal seismic anisotropy and the unique plate-motion deformation of Australia. Nature, 433(7025), 509–512.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Pedersen, T. H., Nielsen, O. B., Lamb, G. D., & Stephenson, D. G. (2004). Intracellular acidosis enhances the excitability of working muscle. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5687), 1144–1147.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Darbyshire, P., & Hampton, D. (2012). Hedge Fund Modelling and Analysis Using Excel and VBA. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Lee, P. T.-W., & Cullinane, K. (Eds.). (2016). Dynamic Shipping and Port Development in the Globalized Economy: Volume 1: Applying Theory to Practice in Maritime Logistics. Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Doshi, A. B., Liu, J. H. K., & Weinreb, R. N. (2010). Glaucoma is a 24/7 Disease. In P. N. Schacknow & J. R. Samples (Eds.), The Glaucoma Book: A Practical, Evidence-Based Approach to Patient Care (pp. 55–57). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, December 3). Science Journal Nature Makes Its Articles Free To Read And Share. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1983). Financial Information Lacking on Government Telecommunications Services and Equipment (MASAD-83-16). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Powell, T. J. (2012). Saxophone sonatas: 1980–2010 [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2013, May 15). Covering the Rising Cost of Long-Term Care. New York Times, F3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoshino, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Fitzgerald & Golenbock, 2007; Hoshino, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fitzgerald & Golenbock, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Debayle et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Pedersen et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleScandinavian Journal of Educational Research
AbbreviationScand. J. Educ. Res.
ISSN (print)0031-3831
ISSN (online)1470-1170

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