How to format your references using the Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holmes, D. (2015). The problem with platinum. Nature, 527(7579), S218-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Flanagan, J. R., & Johansson, R. S. (2003). Action plans used in action observation. Nature, 424(6950), 769–771.
A journal article with 3 authors
Amunts, A., Drory, O., & Nelson, N. (2007). The structure of a plant photosystem I supercomplex at 3.4 A resolution. Nature, 447(7140), 58–63.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Michel, T., Reichhart, J. M., Hoffmann, J. A., & Royet, J. (2001). Drosophila Toll is activated by Gram-positive bacteria through a circulating peptidoglycan recognition protein. Nature, 414(6865), 756–759.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anichini, G., Carraro, F., Geslin, P., & Guille-Escuret, G. (2017). Technicity vs Scientificity. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Schuck, S., & Pereira, P. (Eds.). (2011). What Counts in Teaching Mathematics: Adding Value to Self and Content (Vol. 11). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, X., & Reeves, D. (2015). Anonymity. In D. Reeves (Ed.), Traceback and Anonymity (pp. 49–56). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, June 10). “Bonding Hormone” Oxytocin Makes Dogs More Social. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Collection Efforts Not Keeping Pace With Growing Number of Defaulted Student Loans (CD-77-1). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sever, R. S. (2017). A Quantitative Descriptive Study Using the Theoretical Domains Framework to Investigate and Compare the Psychotropic Medication Prescribing Behavior of Primary Care Prescribers [Doctoral dissertation]. Northcentral University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2002, August 1). World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Orthodox Church Berates Vatican. New York Times, A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Holmes, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Flanagan & Johansson, 2003; Holmes, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Flanagan & Johansson, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Amunts et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Michel et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleScandinavian Journal of Educational Research
AbbreviationScand. J. Educ. Res.
ISSN (print)0031-3831
ISSN (online)1470-1170

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