How to format your references using the Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stevenson, D. J. (2003). Planetary science: Mission to Earth’s core--a modest proposal. Nature, 423(6937), 239–240.
A journal article with 2 authors
Einstein, T. L., & Stasevich, T. J. (2010). Materials science. Epitaxial growth writ large. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5964), 423–424.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thorne, S. H., Negrin, R. S., & Contag, C. H. (2006). Synergistic antitumor effects of immune cell-viral biotherapy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5768), 1780–1784.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
West, G. B., Savage, V. M., Gillooly, J., Enquist, B. J., Woodruff, W. H., & Brown, J. H. (2003). Physiology: Why does metabolic rate scale with body size? Nature, 421(6924), 713; discussion 714.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Li, H.-X., & Lu, X. (2014). System Design and Control Integration for Advanced Manufacturing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Brogliato, B. (2007). Dissipative Systems Analysis and Control: Theory and Applications (B. Maschke, R. Lozano, & O. Egeland, Eds.; 2nd Edition). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Engel, D., & Metzger, G. (2006). Direct Employment Effects of New Firms. In M. Fritsch & J. Schmude (Eds.), Entrepreneurship in the Region (pp. 75–93). Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017, February 13). “Cassie’ Is Set To Revolutionize The Way Robots Walk. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Telecommunications Readiness Critical, Yet Overall Status Largely Unknown (T-AIMD-98-212). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stanfill, D. L. (2010). Teacher perception of the alignment of enhancing Missouri’s Instructional Networked Teaching Strategies (eMINTS) with the National Staff Development Council (NSDC) Standards [Doctoral dissertation]. Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017, January 19). They Call Us Monsters. New York Times, C11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stevenson, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Einstein & Stasevich, 2010; Stevenson, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Einstein & Stasevich, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Thorne et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (West et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleScandinavian Journal of Educational Research
AbbreviationScand. J. Educ. Res.
ISSN (print)0031-3831
ISSN (online)1470-1170

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