How to format your references using the Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rochmyaningsih, D. (2015). Don’t distort policy in the name of national pride. Nature, 523(7560), 257.
A journal article with 2 authors
Srinivasan, M., & Ruina, A. (2006). Computer optimization of a minimal biped model discovers walking and running. Nature, 439(7072), 72–75.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gupta, A. K., Anderson, D. M., & Overpeck, J. T. (2003). Abrupt changes in the Asian southwest monsoon during the Holocene and their links to the North Atlantic Ocean. Nature, 421(6921), 354–357.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhang, H.-L., Zang, Y., Xie, J., Li, J., Chen, G.-R., He, X.-P., & Tian, H. (2014). A “clicked” tetrameric hydroxamic acid glycopeptidomimetic antagonizes sugar-lectin interactions on the cellular level. Scientific Reports, 4, 5513.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Leleux, B., van Swaay, H., & Megally, E. (2015). Private Equity 4.0. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ambrosio, L. (2011). Introduction to Measure Theory and Integration (G. D. Prato & A. Mennucci, Eds.; Vol. 10). Edizioni della Normale.
A chapter in an edited book
Lai, Y.-C., & Tél, T. (2011). Noise and Transient Chaos. In T. Tél (Ed.), Transient Chaos: Complex Dynamics on Finite Time Scales (pp. 107–143). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017, February 17). Oxygen Levels In The Ocean Have Dropped Due To Climate Change. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1980). U.S. Must Spend More To Maintain Lead in Space Technology (FGMSD-80-32). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fister, T. W. (2017). Activating the art classroom: Combining critical pedagogy, visual culture and socially engaged art to promote agency amongst high school students [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2015, December 2). Puerto Rico Begins Choosing Which Payments to Make. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rochmyaningsih, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Rochmyaningsih, 2015; Srinivasan & Ruina, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Srinivasan & Ruina, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Gupta et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleScandinavian Journal of Educational Research
AbbreviationScand. J. Educ. Res.
ISSN (print)0031-3831
ISSN (online)1470-1170

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