How to format your references using the South African Geographical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for South African Geographical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenberg, R. (2009). Chemistry. Rethinking water splitting. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5923), 44–45.
A journal article with 2 authors
Feachem, R. G. A., & Medlin, C. A. (2002). Health is wealth. Nature, 417(6890), 695.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bala, A. D. S., Spitzer, M. W., & Takahashi, T. T. (2003). Prediction of auditory spatial acuity from neural images on the owl’s auditory space map. Nature, 424(6950), 771–774.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Joint, I., Tait, K., Callow, M. E., Callow, J. A., Milton, D., Williams, P., & Cámara, M. (2002). Cell-to-cell communication across the prokaryote-eukaryote boundary. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5596), 1207.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bilbao, S. (2005). Wave and Scattering Methods for Numerical Simulation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Schousboe, I., & Winther-Lindqvist, D. (Eds.). (2013). Children’s Play and Development: Cultural-Historical Perspectives (Vol. 8). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Sonwani, S., Saxena, P., & Kulshrestha, U. (2016). Role of Global Warming and Plant Signaling in BVOC Emissions. In U. Kulshrestha & P. Saxena (Eds.), Plant Responses to Air Pollution (pp. 45–57). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for South African Geographical Journal.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2017, January 10). 2016’s Arctic Report Card: Temperatures Went Crazy. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2017). High Risk: Actions Needed to Address Serious Weaknesses in Federal Management of Programs Serving Indian Tribes (GAO-17-587T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, E. A. (2008). Factors associated with post-stroke depressive symptoms and quality of life [Doctoral dissertation]. Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B., & Ember, S. (2016, October 17). Facing the Music. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eisenberg, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Eisenberg, 2009; Feachem & Medlin, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Feachem & Medlin, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Bala et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Joint et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleSouth African Geographical Journal
AbbreviationS. Afr. Geogr. J.
ISSN (print)0373-6245
ISSN (online)2151-2418
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles