How to format your references using the South African Geographical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for South African Geographical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Balter, M. (2000). SPONGIFORM DISEASE: Experts Downplay New vCJD Fears. Science (New York, N.Y.), 289(5485), 1663b–1666b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kundu, P., & Pettersson, S. (2014). Immunology: Mammalian watchdog targets bacteria. Nature, 512(7515), 377–378.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ye, Q., Krug, R. M., & Tao, Y. J. (2006). The mechanism by which influenza A virus nucleoprotein forms oligomers and binds RNA. Nature, 444(7122), 1078–1082.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Li, W., Kamtekar, S., Xiong, Y., Sarkis, G. J., Grindley, N. D. F., & Steitz, T. A. (2005). Structure of a synaptic gammadelta resolvase tetramer covalently linked to two cleaved DNAs. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5738), 1210–1215.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rizzi, T. E., Valenciano, A., Bowles, M., Cowell, R., Tyler, R., & DeNicola, D. B. (2017). Atlas of Canine and Feline Urinalysis. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Cold, G. E., & Juul, N. (Eds.). (2008). Monitoring of Cerebral and Spinal Haemodynamics During Neurosurgery. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Alves-Prado, H. F., Bocchini, D. A., Gomes, E., Baida, L. C., Contiero, J., Roberto, I. C., & Da Silva, R. (2007). Optimization of Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase Production From Bacillus clausii E16 in Submerged Fermentation Using Response Surface Methodology. In J. R. Mielenz, K. T. Klasson, W. S. Adney, & J. D. McMillan (Eds.), Applied Biochemistry and Biotecnology: The Twenty-Eighth Symposium Proceedings of the Twenty-Eight Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals Held April 30–May 3, 2006, in Nashville, Tennessee (pp. 27–40). Humana Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for South African Geographical Journal.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016, May 10). NASA Will Be Making An Announcement Today - Here’s How To Watch Live. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). [Comments on FAA Employee’s Claim for Temporary Quarters Subsistence Expenses] (B-257914). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, J. M. (2013). Service learning: Providing the building blocks for a socially responsible nursing role [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2007, February 11). Nassau Coliseum Moves Closer to Renovation. New York Times, 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Balter, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Balter, 2000; Kundu & Pettersson, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kundu & Pettersson, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Ye et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Li et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleSouth African Geographical Journal
AbbreviationS. Afr. Geogr. J.
ISSN (print)0373-6245
ISSN (online)2151-2418
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles