How to format your references using the South African Geographical Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for South African Geographical Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Edwards, E. A. (2014). Microbiology. Breathing the unbreathable. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6208), 424–425.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scholes, R. J., & Biggs, R. (2005). A biodiversity intactness index. Nature, 434(7029), 45–49.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, H., Habas, R., & Abate-Shen, C. (2004). MSX1 cooperates with histone H1b for inhibition of transcription and myogenesis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5677), 1675–1678.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kanwar, N., Scott, H. M., Norby, B., Loneragan, G. H., Vinasco, J., Cottell, J. L., Chalmers, G., Chengappa, M. M., Bai, J., & Boerlin, P. (2014). Impact of treatment strategies on cephalosporin and tetracycline resistance gene quantities in the bovine fecal metagenome. Scientific Reports, 4, 5100.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Taber, D. F. (2006). Organic Synthesis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hu, M., Liu, Y., & Lin, J. (Eds.). (2013). Topics in Applied Statistics: 2012 Symposium of the International Chinese Statistical Association (Vol. 55). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Goedecke, M., & Welsch, J. (2016). Administrative Requirements for the Integration of Environmental Concerns and Demands of Climate Change into the Planning Process. In A. Katzschner, M. Waibel, D. Schwede, L. Katzschner, M. Schmidt, & H. Storch (Eds.), Sustainable Ho Chi Minh City: Climate Policies for Emerging Mega Cities (pp. 75–88). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for South African Geographical Journal.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016, May 15). Will Europe’s Flagship ExoMars Mission Ever Get Off The Ground? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). United States Interests and Activities in Nepal (B-177681). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sharp, L. M. (2009). Creative nonfiction illuminated: Cross-disciplinary spotlights [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2010, November 13). Shudders in Market For Municipal Bonds. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Edwards, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Edwards, 2014; Scholes & Biggs, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Scholes & Biggs, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Lee et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kanwar et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSouth African Geographical Journal
AbbreviationS. Afr. Geogr. J.
ISSN (print)0373-6245
ISSN (online)2151-2418
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles