How to format your references using the Source Code for Biology and Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Source Code for Biology and Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Gibson VC. Chemistry. Shuttling polyolefins to a new materials dimension. Science. 2006;312:703–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Brinker CJ, Clem PG. Materials science. Quartz on silicon. Science. 2013;340:818–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Rignot E, Rivera A, Casassa G. Contribution of the Patagonia Icefields of South America to sea level rise. Science. 2003;302:434–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Zhou Z, Licklider LJ, Gygi SP, Reed R. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of the human spliceosome. Nature. 2002;419:182–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hooker J. Logic-Based Methods for Optimization. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2000.
An edited book
1. Angelici FM, editor. Problematic Wildlife: A Cross-Disciplinary Approach. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Lahrach R, Merlin V. Which Voting Rule Minimizes the Probability of the Referendum Paradox? Lessons from French Data. In: Felsenthal DS, Machover M, editors. Electoral Systems: Paradoxes, Assumptions, and Procedures. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 129–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Source Code for Biology and Medicine.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Record Sea Turtle Migration Highlights Need For Expanded Reserves. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Management of the Community Action Against Addiction Program in Cleveland, Ohio. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975 Jun. Report No.: MWD-75-92.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Lawrence BH. Evaluation of a cultural practice and 2,4-D-based herbicide programs for glyphosateresistant Palmer amaranth management [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kanter J. As Hopes for European Unity Dim, New E.U. Headquarters Are Glowing. New York Times. 2016 Dec 27;A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSource Code for Biology and Medicine
AbbreviationSource Code Biol. Med.
ISSN (online)1751-0473
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Information Systems
Information Systems and Management
Health Informatics

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