How to format your references using the Source Code for Biology and Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Source Code for Biology and Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Schiermeier Q. NATO reform promises more publicity for less science. Nature. 2003;422:248.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Cane MA, Molnar P. Closing of the Indonesian seaway as a precursor to east African aridification around 3-4 million years ago. Nature. 2001;411:157–62.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Oye KA, Lawson JCH, Bubela T. Drugs: Regulate “home-brew” opiates. Nature. 2015;521:281–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Price MN, Wetmore KM, Waters RJ, Callaghan M, Ray J, Liu H, et al. Mutant phenotypes for thousands of bacterial genes of unknown function. Nature. 2018;557:503–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Russell C. Trustee Investment Strategy for Endowments and Foundations. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
1. Le Bodo Y. Taxing Soda for Public Health: A Canadian Perspective. Paquette M-C, De Wals P, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Tirri H. Challenges of Urban Sensing. In: Fürnkranz J, Scheffer T, Spiliopoulou M, editors. Knowledge Discovery in Databases: PKDD 2006: 10th European Conference on Principles and Practice of Knowledge Discovery in Databases Berlin, Germany, September 18-22, 2006 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 5–5.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Source Code for Biology and Medicine.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. FDA Warns Common Food Ingredient Can Be Fatal To Dogs [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/fda-warns-artificial-sweetener-can-be-fatal-dogs/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Review of NASA Contract To Determine Procedures Used in Negotiating Noncompetitive Contracts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Feb. Report No.: 104925.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Grant L. How Does a Principal Use Intention and Strategy in the Enactment of Advocacy Leadership? [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Billard M. A Shoe With Meow. New York Times. 2010 Aug 19;E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSource Code for Biology and Medicine
AbbreviationSource Code Biol. Med.
ISSN (online)1751-0473
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Information Systems
Information Systems and Management
Health Informatics

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