How to format your references using the Sociology of Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sociology of Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clapham, David E. 2015. “Structural Biology: Pain-Sensing TRPA1 Channel Resolved.” Nature 520(7548):439–41.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chang, Fred, and Matthias Peter. 2002. “Cell Biology. Formins Set the Record Straight.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 297(5581):531–32.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gagné, Jean-Philippe, Michèle Rouleau, and Guy G. Poirier. 2012. “Structural Biology. PARP-1 Activation--Bringing the Pieces Together.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 336(6082):678–79.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tong, L., T. Pakizeh, L. Feuz, and A. Dmitriev. 2013. “Highly Directional Bottom-up 3D Nanoantenna for Visible Light.” Scientific Reports 3:2311.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D’Amico, Guglielmo, Giuseppe Di Biase, Jacques Janssen, and Raimondo Manca. 2017. Semi-Markov Migration Models for Credit Risk. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Awrejcewicz, Jan, ed. 2014. Applied Non-Linear Dynamical Systems. Vol. 93. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Ganian, Robert. 2011. “Thread Graphs, Linear Rank-Width and Their Algorithmic Applications.” Pp. 38–42 in Combinatorial Algorithms: 21st International Workshop, IWOCA 2010, London, UK, July 26-28, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, edited by C. S. Iliopoulos and W. F. Smyth. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sociology of Education.

Blog post
Evans, Katy. 2016. “This Interactive Map Shows Where People With HIV Live In The US — And It Points To Some Distressing Trends.” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2003. Transportation Security: Federal Action Needed to Help Address Security Challenges. GAO-03-843. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Denno, Dawn. 2010. “Multiple Paths to First Grade: A Comparison of Child, Parent, and Early Education Variables Associated with Multiple Year Kindergarten Experiences.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, Mary. 2012. “A Sprint and Leap Into the Unknown.” New York Times, July 22, F15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clapham 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Chang and Peter 2002; Clapham 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chang and Peter 2002)
  • Three authors: (Gagné, Rouleau, and Poirier 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Tong et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSociology of Education
AbbreviationSociol. Educ.
ISSN (print)0038-0407
Sociology and Political Science

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