How to format your references using the Sociology of Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sociology of Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kummel, Andrew C. 2003. “Chemistry. How to Assemble a Molecular Junction.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 302(5642):69–70.
A journal article with 2 authors
Losos, Jonathan B., and Robert M. Pringle. 2011. “Competition, Predation and Natural Selection in Island Lizards.” Nature 475(7355):E1-2; discussion E3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Behrens, Timothy E. J., Laurence T. Hunt, and Matthew F. S. Rushworth. 2009. “The Computation of Social Behavior.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 324(5931):1160–64.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Skålén, Kristina, Maria Gustafsson, Ellen Knutsen Rydberg, Lillemor Mattsson Hultén, Olov Wiklund, Thomas L. Innerarity, and Jan Borén. 2002. “Subendothelial Retention of Atherogenic Lipoproteins in Early Atherosclerosis.” Nature 417(6890):750–54.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Duckert, Gregory H. 2010. Practical Enterprise Risk Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bortz, Joel H., Aarthi Ramlaul, and Leonie Munro, eds. 2016. CT Colonography for Radiographers: A Guide to Performance and Image Interpretation. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Ghersetich, Ilaria, Benedetta Brazzini, Torello Lotti, Maria Pia De Padova, and Antonella Tosti. 2006. “Resorcinol.” Pp. 41–47 in Color Atlas of Chemical Peels, edited by A. Tosti, P. E. Grimes, and M. P. D. Padova. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sociology of Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2016. “You Could Fit The Entire Human Race Into A Sugar Cube — And 13 Other Facts To Put The Universe Into Perspective.” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1968. Management Information Needs in an Era of Change. 094496. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Basik, Nathan. 2008. “An Evolutionary Approach to Intuitionism and Moral Realism.” Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, John. 2017. “TV’s Answer to Dark Days.” New York Times, February 5, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kummel 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Kummel 2003; Losos and Pringle 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Losos and Pringle 2011)
  • Three authors: (Behrens, Hunt, and Rushworth 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Skålén et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleSociology of Education
AbbreviationSociol. Educ.
ISSN (print)0038-0407
Sociology and Political Science

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