How to format your references using the Sociology of Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sociology of Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hyman, Steven E. 2008. “A Glimmer of Light for Neuropsychiatric Disorders.” Nature 455(7215):890–93.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wiseman, R. Luke and Jeffery W. Kelly. 2011. “Cell Biology. Phosphatase Inhibition Delays Translational Recovery.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 332(6025):44–45.
A journal article with 3 authors
Royer, Dana L., Robert A. Berner, and Jeffrey Park. 2007. “Climate Sensitivity Constrained by CO2 Concentrations over the Past 420 Million Years.” Nature 446(7135):530–32.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cui, Xiaotian, Qingnan Liang, Yijian Liang, Mingxing Lu, Yu Ding, and Boxun Lu. 2014. “TR-FRET Assays of Huntingtin Protein Fragments Reveal Temperature and PolyQ Length-Dependent Conformational Changes.” Scientific Reports 4:5601.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barton, Larry L. and Diana E. Northup. 2011. Microbial Ecology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Brewer, Michael L. and David Marcum, eds. 2008. Proceedings of the 16th International Meshing Roundtable. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lê, Matthieu, Jan Unkelbach, Nicholas Ayache, and Hervé Delingette. 2015. “GPSSI: Gaussian Process for Sampling Segmentations of Images.” Pp. 38–46 in Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2015: 18th International Conference, Munich, Germany, October 5-9, 2015, Proceedings, Part III, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, edited by N. Navab, J. Hornegger, W. M. Wells, and A. F. Frangi. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sociology of Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Researchers Narrow In On Common Cystic Fibrosis Infection.” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1990. Aviation: FAA’s Use and Management of Communications Resources. IMTEC-90-8. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rudoy, Steven I. 2014. “Developing a Model for Understanding Mindfulness as a Potential Intervention for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.” Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, Linda. 2008. “On the Beach, the Yoga Poses Really Flow.” New York Times, July 20, LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hyman 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Hyman 2008; Wiseman and Kelly 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wiseman and Kelly 2011)
  • Three authors: (Royer, Berner, and Park 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Cui et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSociology of Education
AbbreviationSociol. Educ.
ISSN (print)0038-0407
Sociology and Political Science

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