How to format your references using the Sociology of Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sociology of Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lammert, Eckhard. 2008. “Developmental Biology. Brain Wnts for Blood Vessels.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 322(5905):1195–96.
A journal article with 2 authors
Narayan, Ramesh, and Eliot Quataert. 2005. “Black Hole Accretion.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 307(5706):77–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hart, Gerald W., Michael P. Housley, and Chad Slawson. 2007. “Cycling of O-Linked Beta-N-Acetylglucosamine on Nucleocytoplasmic Proteins.” Nature 446(7139):1017–22.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Claes, Julien M., Dan-Eric Nilsson, Nicolas Straube, Shaun P. Collin, and Jérôme Mallefet. 2014. “Iso-Luminance Counterillumination Drove Bioluminescent Shark Radiation.” Scientific Reports 4:4328.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mattu, Amal, Shamai A. Grossman, and Peter L. Rosen. 2016. Geriatric Emergencies. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Drechsler, Rolf. 2009. Test Pattern Generation Using Boolean Proof Engines. edited by S. Eggersglüβ, G. Fey, and D. Tille. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Saad, Amir Putra Bin Md, Ardiyansyah Syahrom, Muhamad Noor Harun, and Mohammed Rafiq Abdul Kadir. 2016. “Conclusion.” Pp. 55–55 in Wear Prediction on Total Ankle Replacement: Effect of Design Parameters, SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology, edited by A. Syahrom, M. N. Harun, and M. R. A. Kadir. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sociology of Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Desert Rain Frog: Dangerous Beast or Adorable Squeaky Toy?” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. FCC: Ka-Band Satellite Application and Licensing Procedure. OGC-98-15. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Butts, Paula. 2017. “Green Roof Vegetable Production in Three Different Growth Media.” Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), Sophia Kishkovsky. 2001. “World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Agreement On Moldova Rebels.” New York Times, November 24, A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lammert 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Lammert 2008; Narayan and Quataert 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Narayan and Quataert 2005)
  • Three authors: (Hart, Housley, and Slawson 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Claes et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSociology of Education
AbbreviationSociol. Educ.
ISSN (print)0038-0407
Sociology and Political Science

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