How to format your references using the Sociology of Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sociology of Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clyne, Rosemary. 2004. “Industry and Interns. The Intern Experience.” Nature 431(7008):612.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matzke, Marjori, and Antonius J. M. Matzke. 2003. “RNAi Extends Its Reach.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301(5636):1060–61.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, Changbao, Ailing Zhou, and Tao Sang. 2006. “Rice Domestication by Reducing Shattering.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 311(5769):1936–39.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dobbins, Ian G., David M. Schnyer, Mieke Verfaellie, and Daniel L. Schacter. 2004. “Cortical Activity Reductions during Repetition Priming Can Result from Rapid Response Learning.” Nature 428(6980):316–19.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barnes, Timothy. 2013. Constantine. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Müller, Susann, and Thomas Bley, eds. 2011. High Resolution Microbial Single Cell Analytics. Vol. 124. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Knopov, Pavel S., and Olena N. Deriyeva. 2013. “Control Problem for Diffusion-Type Random Fields.” Pp. 135–53 in Estimation and Control Problems for Stochastic Partial Differential Equations, Springer Optimization and Its Applications, edited by O. N. Deriyeva. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sociology of Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Do Rats Dream of the Future?” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2002. Information Technology: Justice Plans to Improve Oversight of Agency Projects. GAO-03-135. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vazquez Baeza, Yoshiki. 2017. “Statistical Representations Of Microbial Systems.” Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, Mary. 2013. “Anger and Indifference After a School Ends a Full-Contact Tradition.” New York Times, October 12, D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clyne 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Clyne 2004; Matzke and Matzke 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Matzke and Matzke 2003)
  • Three authors: (Li, Zhou, and Sang 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Dobbins et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleSociology of Education
AbbreviationSociol. Educ.
ISSN (print)0038-0407
Sociology and Political Science

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