How to format your references using the Sociology of Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sociology of Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bakardjiev, Anna. 2015. “Immunology: Stillbirth Prevented by Signal Blockade.” Nature 520(7549):627–28.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bays, Paul M., and Masud Husain. 2009. “Response to Comment on ‘Dynamic Shifts of Limited Working Memory Resources in Human Vision.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 323(5916):877.
A journal article with 3 authors
Samuelsson, A., T. L. Towers, and J. V. Ravetch. 2001. “Anti-Inflammatory Activity of IVIG Mediated through the Inhibitory Fc Receptor.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 291(5503):484–86.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yasmin, Lyzu, Xianjue Chen, Keith A. Stubbs, and Colin L. Raston. 2013. “Optimising a Vortex Fluidic Device for Controlling Chemical Reactivity and Selectivity.” Scientific Reports 3:2282.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zarbock, Gerhard, Siobhan Lynch, Axel Ammann, and Silka Ringer. 2014. Mindfulness for Therapists. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Paige, Richard F., ed. 2009. Theory and Practice of Model Transformations: Second International Conference, ICMT 2009, Zurich, Switzerland, June 29-30, 2009. Proceedings. Vol. 5563. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sakurai, Shobu. 2006. “Plantation Forestry in the Tropics.” Pp. 53–63 in Plantation Technology in Tropical Forest Science, edited by K. Suzuki, K. Ishii, S. Sakurai, and S. Sasaki. Tokyo: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sociology of Education.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. “France To Shut Down All Its Coal Power Plants By 2023.” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. Excluded Parties List System: Suspended and Debarred Businesses and Individuals Improperly Receive Federal Funds. GAO-09-174. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sharma, Vishal. 2017. “Functional Characterization of Na+/Ca2+ Exchangers in Caenorhabditis Elegans.” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, Ben. 2017. “Yelling About Sex.” New York Times, February 10, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bakardjiev 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bakardjiev 2015; Bays and Husain 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bays and Husain 2009)
  • Three authors: (Samuelsson, Towers, and Ravetch 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Yasmin et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSociology of Education
AbbreviationSociol. Educ.
ISSN (print)0038-0407
Sociology and Political Science

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