How to format your references using the Current Opinion in Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Opinion in Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Launius RD: Neil Armstrong (1930-2012). Nature 2012, 489:368.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hegde D, Mowery DC: Research funding. Politics and funding in the U.S. public biomedical R&D system. Science 2008, 322:1797–1798.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bergmann DC, Lukowitz W, Somerville CR: Stomatal development and pattern controlled by a MAPKK kinase. Science 2004, 304:1494–1497.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Slavin JA, Anderson BJ, Baker DN, Benna M, Boardsen SA, Gloeckler G, Gold RE, Ho GC, Korth H, Krimigis SM, et al.: MESSENGER observations of extreme loading and unloading of Mercury’s magnetic tail. Science 2010, 329:665–668.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Diab WW, Frazier HM: Ethernet in the First Mile. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Cellier FE: Continuous System Simulation. Springer US; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Khalaf Z, Palicot J: New Blind Free-Band Detectors Exploiting Cyclic Autocorrelation Function Sparsity. In Cognitive Communication and Cooperative HetNet Coexistence: Selected Advances on Spectrum Sensing, Learning, and Security Approaches. Edited by Di Benedetto M-G, Bader F. Springer International Publishing; 2014:91–117.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Opinion in Microbiology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J: Artificial Cells Just Passed The Turing Test By Tricking Bacteria Into Thinking They Were Alive. IFLScience 2017,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Operations of and Outlook for the Transportation Trust Funds. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bolman DB: Examining the Relationship Between Technology Leadership Behaviors and Project Success. 2012,

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K: To Your Health. New York Times 2009,

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Opinion in Microbiology
AbbreviationCurr. Opin. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)1369-5274
ISSN (online)1879-0364
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles