How to format your references using the Current Opinion in Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Opinion in Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spence JCH: Materials science. Oxygen in crystals--seeing is believing. Science 2003, 299:839–841.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chyba CF, Hand KP: Planetary science. Life without photosynthesis. Science 2001, 292:2026–2027.
A journal article with 3 authors
Borgia G, Coyle BJ, Keagy J: Comment on “Illusions promote mating success in great bowerbirds.” Science 2012, 337:292; author reply 292.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Franzdóttir SR, Engelen D, Yuva-Aydemir Y, Schmidt I, Aho A, Klämbt C: Switch in FGF signalling initiates glial differentiation in the Drosophila eye. Nature 2009, 460:758–761.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Garduno Barrera D, Diaz M: Communicating Systems with UML 2. John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2011.
An edited book
Makhanov SS: Advanced Numerical Methods to Optimize Cutting Operations of Five-Axis Milling Machines. Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Kyrillidis L, Hili G, Cobourne S, Mayes K, Markantonakis K: Virtual World Authentication Using the Smart Card Web Server. In Security in Computing and Communications: International Symposium, SSCC 2013, Mysore, India, August 22-24, 2013. Proceedings. Edited by Thampi SM, Atrey PK, Fan C-I, Perez GM. Springer; 2013:30–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Opinion in Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrew E: Happy World Turtle Day! IFLScience 2015,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Review Of Reliability Of The Air Force Personnel Data System. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1968.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gutierrez R: Providing Hope: A Systematic Development of a Resource Manual for Mental Health Professionals Treating Latino/a Adolescents with Suicidal Ideation. 2017,

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J: Indians’ Kluber Emerges as a Postseason Power. New York Times 2016,

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Opinion in Microbiology
AbbreviationCurr. Opin. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)1369-5274
ISSN (online)1879-0364
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles