How to format your references using the Social Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Anderson, D.L. Geophysics. Top-down Tectonics? Science 2001, 293, 2016–2018.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jackson, S.P.; Bartek, J. The DNA-Damage Response in Human Biology and Disease. Nature 2009, 461, 1071–1078.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wearn, O.R.; Reuman, D.C.; Ewers, R.M. Extinction Debt and Windows of Conservation Opportunity in the Brazilian Amazon. Science 2012, 337, 228–232.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Haubensak, W.; Kunwar, P.S.; Cai, H.; Ciocchi, S.; Wall, N.R.; Ponnusamy, R.; Biag, J.; Dong, H.-W.; Deisseroth, K.; Callaway, E.M.; et al. Genetic Dissection of an Amygdala Microcircuit That Gates Conditioned Fear. Nature 2010, 468, 270–276.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
George, M.D.; Donley, T.G.; Preshaw, P.M. Ultrasonic Periodontal Debridement; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2014; ISBN 9781119421429.
An edited book
High-Performance Packet Switching Architectures; Elhanany, I., Hamdi, M., Eds.; Springer: London, 2007; ISBN 9781846282737.
A chapter in an edited book
Palermo, G.; Silvano, C.; Zaccaria, V.; Rigoni, E.; Kavka, C.; Turco, A.; Mariani, G. Response Surface Modeling for Design Space Exploration of Embedded System. In Multi-objective Design Space Exploration of Multiprocessor SoC Architectures: The MULTICUBE Approach; Silvano, C., Fornaciari, W., Villar, E., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2011; pp. 75–92 ISBN 9781441988362.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Sciences.

Blog post
Hale, T. Orphaned Chimp Is Adopted By A Pregnant Female In An “Unheard Of” Act Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office The National School Lunch Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1977;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kellogg, A. Hospital Lean and Six Sigma: Is There a Financial Benefit? Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Macintyre, B. The Fog of War. New York Times 2017, BR12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Sciences
AbbreviationSoc. Sci. (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-0760

Other styles