How to format your references using the Social Movement Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Movement Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mirabel, I. F. (2006). Astronomy. Very energetic gamma-rays from microquasars and binary pulsars. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5781), 1759–1760.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mehta, R. S., & Wainwright, P. C. (2007). Raptorial jaws in the throat help moray eels swallow large prey. Nature, 449(7158), 79–82.
A journal article with 3 authors
Westover, K. D., Bushnell, D. A., & Kornberg, R. D. (2004). Structural basis of transcription: separation of RNA from DNA by RNA polymerase II. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5660), 1014–1016.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Follows, M. J., Dutkiewicz, S., Grant, S., & Chisholm, S. W. (2007). Emergent biogeography of microbial communities in a model ocean. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5820), 1843–1846.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stephans, R. A. (2004). System Safety for the 21 st Century. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Trąpczyński, P., Puślecki, Ł., & Jarosiński, M. (Eds.). (2016). Competitiveness of CEE Economies and Businesses: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Challenges and Opportunities. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Mielke, A. (2015). Variational Approaches and Methods for Dissipative Material Models with Multiple Scales. In S. Conti & K. Hackl (Eds.), Analysis and Computation of Microstructure in Finite Plasticity (pp. 125–155). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Movement Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, March 27). Goats Are Surprisingly Good At Learning Tasks. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Guaranteed Student Loans: Lenders’ Interest Billings Often Result in Overpayments (HRD-88-72). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cashion, A. T. (2010). Exploring Dielectric Absorption: Data Collection System Development [Doctoral dissertation]. University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. (2017, March 20). Ed Sheeran Holds No. 1 as Drake Inches Up. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mirabel, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Mehta & Wainwright, 2007; Mirabel, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mehta & Wainwright, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Westover et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Follows et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Movement Studies
AbbreviationSoc. Mov. Stud.
ISSN (print)1474-2837
ISSN (online)1474-2829
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

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