How to format your references using the Social Movement Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Movement Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Green, H. W., 2nd. (2001). Plate tectonics. A graveyard for buoyant slabs? Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5526), 2445–2446.
A journal article with 2 authors
Armand, M., & Tarascon, J.-M. (2008). Building better batteries. Nature, 451(7179), 652–657.
A journal article with 3 authors
Echtay, K. S., Winkler, E., & Klingenberg, M. (2000). Coenzyme Q is an obligatory cofactor for uncoupling protein function. Nature, 408(6812), 609–613.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chen, Z., Appenzeller, J., Lin, Y.-M., Sippel-Oakley, J., Rinzler, A. G., Tang, J., Wind, S. J., Solomon, P. M., & Avouris, P. (2006). An integrated logic circuit assembled on a single carbon nanotube. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5768), 1735.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schober, H. (2015). Transparent Shells. Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn, Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG.
An edited book
Dai, M. (Ed.). (2011). Innovative Computing and Information: International Conference, ICCIC 2011, Wuhan, China, September 17-18, 2011. Proceedings, Part I (Vol. 231). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hermans, F., Pinzger, M., & van Deursen, A. (2010). Automatically Extracting Class Diagrams from Spreadsheets. In T. D’Hondt (Ed.), ECOOP 2010 – Object-Oriented Programming: 24th European Conference, Maribor, Slovenia, June 21-25, 2010. Proceedings (pp. 52–75). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Movement Studies.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, November 16). How One Bird Got Three Such Different-Looking Males. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). General Government Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments (AA-95-33(4)). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lynch, L. E. (2013). Financial regulation and economic performance: A descriptive correlation study of American financial institutions [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. (2016, August 27). The Lost Battle That Helped Win the Revolution. New York Times, A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Green, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Armand & Tarascon, 2008; Green, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Armand & Tarascon, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Echtay et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Chen et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Movement Studies
AbbreviationSoc. Mov. Stud.
ISSN (print)1474-2837
ISSN (online)1474-2829
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

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