How to format your references using the Social Movement Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Movement Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Johnson, E. (2002). Phase of matter. The elusive liquid-solid interface. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5567), 477–478.
A journal article with 2 authors
Parrish, D. D., & Zhu, T. (2009). Climate change. Clean air for megacities. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5953), 674–675.
A journal article with 3 authors
Conroy, C., van Dokkum, P. G., & Choi, J. (2015). Ubiquitous time variability of integrated stellar populations. Nature, 527(7579), 488–491.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yang, Y., Wang, H., Gao, M., Xu, S., Xu, X., Cao, X., & Tao, Y. (2014). Pre-pregnancy cytogenetic analysis of general couples in eastern China. Scientific Reports, 4, 7224.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sinclair, E. (2013). Volatility Trading. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Fleer, M., & Ridgway, A. (Eds.). (2014). Visual Methodologies and Digital Tools for Researching with Young Children: Transforming Visuality (Vol. 10). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Kawasaki, T., & Motoyoshi, Y. (2006). Experimental Constraints on the Decompressional P-T Paths of Rundvågshetta Granulites, Lützow-Holm Complex, East Antarctica. In D. K. Fütterer, D. Damaske, G. Kleinschmidt, H. Miller, & F. Tessensohn (Eds.), Antarctica: Contributions to Global Earth Sciences (pp. 23–36). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Movement Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 4). NASA’s Going To Launch A Flying Saucer Today - Here’s How To Watch. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1982). Survey To Identify Models Used by Executive Agencies in the Policymaking Process (No. PAD-82-46). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson, C. W. (2009). Breaking journalism down: Work, authority, and networking local news, 1997–2009 (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Steel, E., & de la MERCED, M. J. (2017, July 27). Discovery Closes In on Acquiring Scripps Networks as Viacom Exits Competition. New York Times, p. B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Johnson, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Johnson, 2002; Parrish & Zhu, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Parrish & Zhu, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Conroy, van Dokkum, & Choi, 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Yang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Movement Studies
AbbreviationSoc. Mov. Stud.
ISSN (print)1474-2837
ISSN (online)1474-2829
ScopeSociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

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