How to format your references using the Social Dynamics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Dynamics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Strasser, Bruno J. 2003. “Who Cares about the Double Helix?” Nature 422 (6934): 803–804.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reysenbach, Anna-Louise, and Everett Shock. 2002. “Merging Genomes with Geochemistry in Hydrothermal Ecosystems.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5570): 1077–1082.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barta, A., S. Dorner, and N. Polacek. 2001. “Mechanism of Ribosomal Peptide Bond Formation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 291 (5502): 203.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Iwamoto, Nobuyuki, Hideyuki Umeda, Nozomu Tominaga, Ken’ichi Nomoto, and Keiichi Maeda. 2005. “The First Chemical Enrichment in the Universe and the Formation of Hyper Metal-Poor Stars.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 309 (5733): 451–453.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rumelhard, Christian, Catherine Algani, and Anne-Laure Billabert. 2013. Microwave Photonic Links. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ghosh, Sudipto, ed. 2010. Models in Software Engineering: Workshops and Symposia at MODELS 2009, Denver, CO, USA, October 4-9, 2009, Reports and Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 6002. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kreimeyer, Matthias, and Udo Lindemann. 2011. “Complexity Metrics for Design Processes.” In Complexity Metrics in Engineering Design: Managing the Structure of Design Processes, edited by Udo Lindemann, 133–172. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Dynamics.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “ESPN Suspends Reporter For Defending Evolution on Twitter.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. Air Traffic Control: FAA Should Define the Optimal Advanced Automation System Alternative. IMTEC-89-5. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Marquez, Rosa Amanda. 2009. “Examining Coping Skills Used to Deal with Daily Stressors of Law Enforcement.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, Ben. 2017. “Revealing What You May Not Care to Tell.” New York Times, May 17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Strasser 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Strasser 2003; Reysenbach and Shock 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Reysenbach and Shock 2002)
  • Three authors: (Barta, Dorner, and Polacek 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Iwamoto et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Dynamics
AbbreviationSoc. Dyn.
ISSN (print)0253-3952
ISSN (online)1940-7874
ScopeSocial Sciences (miscellaneous)

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