How to format your references using the Social Dynamics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Dynamics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fiset, Sylvain. 2010. “Comment on ‘Differential Sensitivity to Human Communication in Dogs, Wolves, and Human Infants.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 329 (5988): 142; author reply 142.
A journal article with 2 authors
Paterson, W. S., and N. Reeh. 2001. “Thinning of the Ice Sheet in Northwest Greenland over the Past Forty Years.” Nature 414 (6859): 60–62.
A journal article with 3 authors
Galy, Valier, Bernhard Peucker-Ehrenbrink, and Timothy Eglinton. 2015. “Global Carbon Export from the Terrestrial Biosphere Controlled by Erosion.” Nature 521 (7551): 204–207.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ren, Yuan, Yonghong Zhang, Richard Z. Liu, David A. Fenstermacher, Kenneth L. Wright, Jamie K. Teer, and Jie Wu. 2013. “JAK1 Truncating Mutations in Gynecologic Cancer Define New Role of Cancer-Associated Protein Tyrosine Kinase Aberrations.” Scientific Reports 3 (October): 3042.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Somjit, Nutapong, Ian Robertson, and Mitchai Chongcheawchamnan. 2016. Microwave and Millimetre-Wave Design for Wireless Communications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Elomaa, Tapio, Jaakko Hollmén, and Heikki Mannila, eds. 2011. Discovery Science: 14th International Conference, DS 2011, Espoo, Finland, October 5-7, 2011. Proceedings. Vol. 6926. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gaiduk, P. I., and S. L. Prakopyeu. 2014. “Structural Changes in SiGe/Si Layers Induced by Fast Crystallization.” In Subsecond Annealing of Advanced Materials: Annealing by Lasers, Flash Lamps and Swift Heavy Ions, edited by Wolfgang Skorupa and Heidemarie Schmidt, 79–105. Springer Series in Materials Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Dynamics.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Fly-By Missions: What Is The Point When We Have The Technology To Go Into Orbit?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2015. Motor Carrier Safety: Improvements to Data-Driven Oversight Could Better Target High Risk Carriers. GAO-15-433T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Santoso, Eko. 2012. “Intellectual Capital in Indonesia: The Influence on Financial Performance of Banking Industry.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, David A. 2006. “How to Get the Best Rate (and Avoid Fees).” New York Times, June 25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fiset 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Fiset 2010; Paterson and Reeh 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Paterson and Reeh 2001)
  • Three authors: (Galy, Peucker-Ehrenbrink, and Eglinton 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ren et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Dynamics
AbbreviationSoc. Dyn.
ISSN (print)0253-3952
ISSN (online)1940-7874
ScopeSocial Sciences (miscellaneous)

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