How to format your references using the Social Dynamics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Dynamics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Agrawal, A. F. 2001. “Sexual Selection and the Maintenance of Sexual Reproduction.” Nature 411 (6838): 692–695.
A journal article with 2 authors
Field, J., and R. Fullagar. 2001. “Archaeology and Australian Megafauna.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 294 (5540): 7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reznick, David N., Mariana Mateos, and Mark S. Springer. 2002. “Independent Origins and Rapid Evolution of the Placenta in the Fish Genus Poeciliopsis.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 298 (5595): 1018–1020.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Herbig, Utz, Mark Ferreira, Laura Condel, Dee Carey, and John M. Sedivy. 2006. “Cellular Senescence in Aging Primates.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 311 (5765): 1257.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ugeux, Georges. 2014. International Finance Regulation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Tomczyk, Steven, Jie Zhang, and Timothy Bastian, eds. 2014. Coronal Magnetometry. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Takahashi, E. J., P. Lan, T. Okino, Y. Furukawa, Y. Nabekawa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Midorikawa. 2015. “Intense Attosecond Pulses for Probing Ultrafast Molecular Dynamics.” In Ultrafast Phenomena XIX: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference, Okinawa Convention Center, Okinawa, Japan, July 7-11, 2014, edited by Kaoru Yamanouchi, Steven Cundiff, Regina de Vivie-Riedle, Makoto Kuwata-Gonokami, and Louis DiMauro, 16–19. Springer Proceedings in Physics. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Dynamics.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2014. “Kepler Telescope Back With New Exoplanet Discovery.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Aerospace Plane Technology: Research and Development Efforts in Japan and Australia. NSIAD-92-5. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beard, Alexander R. 2017. “Absence Causation in Mechanistic Explanation.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), Sophia Kishkovsky. 2002. “World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Journalist’s Appeal Turned Down.” New York Times, June 26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Agrawal 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Agrawal 2001; Field and Fullagar 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Field and Fullagar 2001)
  • Three authors: (Reznick, Mateos, and Springer 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Herbig et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Dynamics
AbbreviationSoc. Dyn.
ISSN (print)0253-3952
ISSN (online)1940-7874
ScopeSocial Sciences (miscellaneous)

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