How to format your references using the Social Dynamics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Social Dynamics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crow, James Mitchell. 2012. “Therapeutics: Silencing Psoriasis.” Nature 492 (7429): S58-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Phipps, Robert J., and Matthew J. Gaunt. 2009. “A Meta-Selective Copper-Catalyzed C-H Bond Arylation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 323 (5921): 1593–1597.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bordenstein, S. R., F. P. O’Hara, and J. H. Werren. 2001. “Wolbachia-Induced Incompatibility Precedes Other Hybrid Incompatibilities in Nasonia.” Nature 409 (6821): 707–710.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ott, Brittany M., Michael Cruciger, Andrew M. Dacks, and Rita V. M. Rio. 2014. “Hitchhiking of Host Biology by Beneficial Symbionts Enhances Transmission.” Scientific Reports 4 (July): 5825.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bagdonavičius, Vilijandas, Kruopis Julius, and Mikhail S. Nikulin. 2011. Non-Parametric Tests for Complete Data. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Conn, P. Michael, ed. 2008. Sourcebook of Models for Biomedical Research. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Becchi, Paolo. 2012. “Our Responsibility Towards Future Generations.” In Efficiency, Sustainability, and Justice to Future Generations, edited by Klaus Mathis, 77–96. Law and Philosophy Library. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Social Dynamics.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2017. “Smart Female Guppies With Bigger Brains Choose More Attractive Mates.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Aviation Security: Progress Being Made, but Long-Term Attention Is Needed. T-RCED-98-190. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stefanek, Andrew. 2019. “Quantitative Purchasing Structure for Ferrous Scrap.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bromwich, Jonah Engel, and Liam Stack. 2016. “‘Serial’ Podcast Figure Gets New Trial in a Murder He Says He Didn’t Commit.” New York Times, June 30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crow 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Crow 2012; Phipps and Gaunt 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Phipps and Gaunt 2009)
  • Three authors: (Bordenstein, O’Hara, and Werren 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ott et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleSocial Dynamics
AbbreviationSoc. Dyn.
ISSN (print)0253-3952
ISSN (online)1940-7874
ScopeSocial Sciences (miscellaneous)

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